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  • Was not trying to create anything systematic, only descriptive
  • Amy “unfolding views of the world”
  • Amy. No length requirement. Central tendency, although individuals can range in structures at any point in time. Possibly the development happens during the transitions, not at the static “stages”
  • Talk about 9 positions
  • Amy. Career focus – if I temporize I’m just taking a time out and not deciding or thinking about it. If I try to escape, I might look to others to make my decision for me (parents, career counselors, etc.). If I retreat, I could return to dualism, black or white. Only two options, or thinking simplistically instead of thinking critically about how my skills might fit a career.
  • Used interviews with harvard students, and used questions such as “What has stood out to you during the year?” After, Knefelkamp and Widick created a more production oriented instrument with the Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and Erwin created the Scale of Intellectual Development
  • Amy. The DI model goes hand in hand with dualism, multiplicity, relativism, and commitment. Just operationalzing these elements.
  • Amy. Teaching opportunities
  • Not applicable to all types of modern students, however evidence by Knefelkamp suggests that it can fall into all types of students Including two constructs can be complicated and difficult to define, Developed in one area, but not the other
  • Perry1

    1. 1. William G. Perry, Jr. Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development By: Suzy Herman & Amy Veenstra
    2. 2. Historical Context <ul><li>Professor of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Published his theory in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctant theorist </li></ul>
    3. 3. Comparison to Other Theories <ul><li>Used Piaget and Kohlberg developmental ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Sanford and Heath’s influence in higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Little had been done in intellectual development before Perry </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to make meaning of the teaching/learning process </li></ul>
    4. 4. Theory <ul><li>It is a cognitive theory, which means that it explains the development of simple to complex thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 9 Positions, not Stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No assumption of duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central tendencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of view consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static vs. Transitions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Four Main Positions <ul><li>Dualism- Viewing the world dichotomously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black and white thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity- Honoring diverse views when the right answers are not yet known </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism- Recognizing that evidence is needed to support opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to Relativism- Making choices in a contextual world </li></ul>
    6. 6. Small Group Discussion <ul><li>Discuss a viewpoint that has changed for you since you began college? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you go through the four categories? </li></ul><ul><li>What experiences accelerated your development? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Deflections for Cognitive Growth <ul><li>Temporizing- a “time out” period when the movement is postponed </li></ul><ul><li>Escape- avoiding responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Retreat- temporary return to dualism when stressed </li></ul>
    8. 8. Research <ul><li>Used open ended interviews with mostly Harvard undergraduates to create the scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Then a manual was developed with a rating system </li></ul><ul><li>Perry’s research was used to create numerous assessment scales by other researchers </li></ul>
    9. 9. Application <ul><li>Informal assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Instruction Model- operationalizes Perry’s model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framework and direction that students get </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives and perspectives exposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk-taking within a safe environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Application <ul><li>Classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus-One Staging: stretching the student to think beyond current position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student Affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practitioners design development opportunities </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Criticism <ul><li>Inclusiveness: study conducted with mostly white males at prestigious institution </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing students of the 1950s and 1960s to students of today </li></ul><ul><li>The inclusion of two constructs, both intellectual and ethical </li></ul><ul><li>Labels students and can be viewed as judgmental </li></ul>
    12. 12. Questions and Comments