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Practicing What We Preach: designing usage centered deliverables


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Slides and worksheets from a workshop presented at the IA Summit, 2011

During any product development process, interaction designers and researchers must communicate with internal and external team members and decision makers. All too often we talk the UX talk but we forget to walk the UX walk: we send out deliverables without thinking about our needs, the needs of the recipients and what we want to achieve.

Creating design deliverables that address the needs, goals and constraints of those team members will enhance your credibility as a design expert while improving the overall effectiveness of your organization.

This presentation includes a lean framework for understanding users' needs and goals that can help you design the right deliverable (or interface) at the right time for any working environment.

Published in: Technology, Business, Design

Practicing What We Preach: designing usage centered deliverables

  1. Practicing what we preachusage-centered approaches todesigning effective deliverablesAviva Rosenstein, PhDSalesforce.comarosenstein@salesforce.comTwitter: @uxresearch
  2. Design Deliverables• documentation or artifacts from the UX design process• NOT the final product of the design process• created in order to help make something happen
  3. Designing interim deliverables for usability & utility Earns Builds Trust Credibility
  4. There are lots of different deliverables in UX(Here’s some from a list of 42 UX deliverables, from a workshop at CHI 2002) 1. Methodology 2. Offering & Methods 3. Business Problem 4. Markets vs. Products 5. Business Requirements / Context / Comparative Analysis 6. Understand User 7. Understand User Process + Contextual Inquiry 8. Understand User Context 9. Understanding Phase + Prototype for Concept Definition 10. Benchmark 11. Service Concept 12. Document Existing Work 13. Customer Requirements vs. Feature Sets 14. High Level Concept 15. Define Concept + Evaluate Mode 16. Feature List, Functional/Non-functional Requirements 17. Deconstruct Story into Elements 18. Release Plan 19. Design Underlying Structure
  5. No cookie cuttersolutions, today.Agenda:1) Define framework for identifying deliverable design criteria2) Try it out3) Share findings
  6. Narrative/RhetoricalUsage Centered
  7. Tasks (purpose)Job Roles Content (actors) (message) Content Criteria: Information Design Context of Use
  8. Roles Content CriteriaPurpose Context
  9. • What job functions or roles are related to this task?ROLES • What are the characteristics ofRole Models, people in those roles?Role Maps • What are the relationships between the roles? Roles • How do they interact?
  10. Examples of Role relationships: specific roles: ContributorDesigner ImplementerDeveloper RecommenderContent Specialist ApproverResearcher Decision MakerProduct OwnerBusiness OwnerOther stakeholders…
  11. • What are you trying to do or toPURPOSE say?IntentionsGoals • What do the other actors wantNeeds or need?Tasks • What do you need to make happen? • What type of response is desired?Purpose
  12. Tasks: Examples• Obtain information • Encourage investment• Explore alternatives • Provide information• Synthesize insights • Define a process• Articulate a concept • Specify requirements• Gather feedback • Communicate standards• Spark discussion • Close a deal• Socialize an idea • Report status• Make recommendations • Track activities• Achieve consensus • Demonstrate progress
  13. ExploreINTENTIONS InformA few examples: Alert Explain Illustrate Specify Recommend Purpose Persuade
  14. Agreement NEEDS AcceptanceA few examples: Approval Action Confirmation Decision Purpose
  15. CONTEXT • Organizational OF USE relationships • Type of culture • Physical environment • Time dependencies • Complexity • Operational constraints Context
  16. Context: stage in project lifecycle Prototype Alpha Beta GAStage of product lifecycleIdeate Analyze Design Implement Deploy Maintain Tasks are often (not always) related to a specific stage of the development process
  17. CONTENT Concise Detailed CRITERIA Emotional Analytical Rough Polished Content Ephemeral LastingAppropriate level of •Detail •Emotional appeal •PolishTimeframe: Is this content used once, or over a longer period?
  18. Salesforce usability examples
  19. Persona examples Get them in the hands of developers, product owners, other stakeholders…
  20. Your turn: Role Modeling1. Pick a partner or two TASK:Approve visual design direction2. Pick a role and a context P B3. Identify a task relevant ID O O to that role (and to you)4. Write one role to an Dev 11x17 sheet: VzD Mgr – Name of role ROLE: Business Owner – Task TASK: Approve visual design direction – Context of use CONTEXT: Internal waterfall development process;. Supervises multiple product managers, makes final – Role Characteristics go/no go decision. Not knowledgeable about UX. – Content Criteria Frequently consumes materials on mobile devices; no5. (If there’s time) map familiarity with common design tools. May share mocks and with colleagues or C-level execs. role relationships relevant to that task on ROLE CHARACTERISTICS: short attention another 11x17 sheet span/under significant time pressure, metric and visually-focused.6. Share with your table mates CONTENT CRITERIA: brief, clear presentation in common formats consumable on mobile devices
  21. Pick a Role and a Context• Interaction • Internal team • Remote team • Agile designer • Agency • Co-located team • Waterfall• User Researcher partnership• UX Manager • Project-based• Developer vendor Small design • • Startup• Product • Other… agency • Small business Manager • Large agency • Medium size• Business Owner • Other… firm• Executive • Very Large Stakeholder Organization• Potential client • UX team of 1• Other…. • Large UX team • Other… ROLE CONTEXTS
  22. Pick a Task:___________________• What are you trying to do or to say?• What do you need to make happen?• What type of response is desired?• From which actors?
  23. Role characteristics:___________ Goals  Subject matter knowledge Needs  Computer skills Frustrations Motivations  Language proficiency Attitudes  Skill with particular product or system  toward task/job  For each skill, are they:  toward technology used  Novices Trigger(s)  Advanced beginners  for action  Intermediates  Experts  for inaction/roadblocks
  24. Context of: ________________Where and when do users do the task? Task Characteristics: In what environment?  Frequency What corporate culture?  Regularity Where in development process?  Continuity  Intensity of use Direction of information flow?  Timeframe to act Device constraints/ media channels?  Complexity Needs for  Auditability  Predictability  Accuracy & Credibility  Who controls the process?  Confidentiality Operational/safety risks  Other roles involved: Legal/regulatory restrictions
  25. Wrapping up:• Did you have enough information to define context, role characteristics and content criteria for the role you picked?• How well can you define context, characteristics and content criteria for all roles you interact with?
  26. Learn more:• Brown, Dan (2011) Communicating Design: Developing Web Site Documentation for Design and Planning (2nd Edition)• Constantine & Lockwood (1999): Software for use: a practical guide to the models and methods of usage-centered design• Fulcher, Glass & Leacock, (2002): Deliverables that Clarify, Focus, and Improve Design, UPA 2002• Instone, Keith (2002): HCI & IA: Information, Interaction, Interface and Usability Architects Share Deliverables, CHI 2002• Laurel, Brenda (1993) Computers as Theater.• Moreville, Peter, (1.27.09) Semantic Studios: User Experience Deliverables:
  27. Talk the talk Walk the walk UX Aviva Rosenstein, PhD Twitter: @uxresearch