Test construction 2


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Test construction 2

  1. 1. TEST CONSTRUCTION Part II Presented by: Arnel O. Rivera http://www.slideshare.net/ArnelSSI
  2. 2. Guidelines for Test Construction What is testing? “ Testing is generally concerned with turning performance into numbers .” (Baxter, 1997)
  3. 3. <ul><li>Inform learners and teachers of the strengths and </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate learners to review or consolidate specific material </li></ul><ul><li>Guide the planning/development of the ongoing teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if the objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Create a sense of accomplishment </li></ul>Guidelines for Test Construction What are tests for? weaknesses of the process process have been achieved
  4. 4. BARRIERS IN TEST CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>Ms. Alanganin – </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Highfalutin – </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Madaldal – </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Magulo – </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Malabo – </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Pulpol – </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Foringer – </li></ul><ul><li>Ms. Colonial Mentality – </li></ul><ul><li>confusing statements </li></ul><ul><li>difficult vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>excessive wordiness </li></ul><ul><li>complex sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>unclear instructions </li></ul><ul><li>unclear illustrative materials </li></ul><ul><li>linguistically bound words </li></ul><ul><li>culturally bound words </li></ul>
  5. 5. Matching Type
  6. 6. Parts of the Matching Type Test (Vertical Type) <ul><li>Column A </li></ul><ul><li>(Premise) </li></ul><ul><li>Column B </li></ul><ul><li>(Response) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Parts of the Matching Type Test (Horizontal Type) <ul><li>(Premise) </li></ul><ul><li>(Response) </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The list of responses should be relatively short. </li></ul><ul><li>Response options should be arranged alphabetically or numerically. </li></ul><ul><li>Directions clearly indicate the basis for matching. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can responses be used more than once? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will you place your answer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can students infer relationships or are they based on real world logic? </li></ul></ul>What to Look for on Matching Type Tests
  9. 9. <ul><li>Position of matches should be varied. Avoid using patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The choices of each matching set should be on one page </li></ul><ul><li>There are more responses than premises in a single set if responses cannot be used more than once. </li></ul>What to Look for on Matching Type Tests
  10. 10. <ul><li>The premises are homogeneous as well as the responses and are grouped as one item. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set A: Provinces in Region I </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Set B: Provinces in CAR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If responses can be used more than once, it should be proportional to the number of premises (3:5 or 4:10) </li></ul>What to Look for on Matching Type Tests
  11. 11. Examples: <ul><li>Directions: Match the following. </li></ul><ul><li>Food A. Primary reinforcer </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoanalysis B. Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner C. Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation D. Measure of variability </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia E. Hallucinations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Examples: <ul><li>Better: (Use homogenous material in matching items, and if responses are not to be used more than once, include more responses than stimuli.) </li></ul><ul><li>Match the theories in Column A with their proponents in Column B. Write the letter of the correct answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Column A Column B </li></ul><ul><li>___ 1. Psychodynamic Theory A. Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>___ 2. Trait Theory B. B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>___ 3. Behaviorism C. Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>___ 4. Humanism D. Gordon Allport </li></ul><ul><li>___ 5. Social Learning Theory E. Karn Horney </li></ul><ul><li>F. Raymond Cattell </li></ul><ul><li>G. Sigmund Freud </li></ul>
  13. 13. Activity: <ul><li>Prepare a 4 – 5 item Matching type questions based on the selection in your activity sheet. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sentence Completion / Fill-in the Blanks
  15. 15. <ul><li>Only significant words are omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>When omitting words, enough clues are left so that the student who knows the correct answer can supply the correct response. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that grammatical clues are avoided. </li></ul>What to Look for on Sentence Completion Tests
  16. 16. <ul><li>Blanks are at the end of the statement. </li></ul><ul><li>The length of the responses are limited to single words or short phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are not lifted as verbatim quotes from text. </li></ul>What to Look for on Sentence Completion Tests
  17. 17. Examples: <ul><li>An animal with six legs is called _________. </li></ul><ul><li>The item is so indefinite.It can be completed with answers such as bee, mosquito or any other insect </li></ul>Better: 1. Animals with six legs are called ___________.
  18. 18. Examples: <ul><li>The __________ is the answer in _____. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many key words are omitted. Lines are not in equal length. </li></ul>Better: 1. The product is the answers in _________.
  19. 19. Examples: <ul><li>1. If a mango weighs 250 grams, 10 mangoes would weigh ______. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two possible answers – 250 grams and .25 kilos. </li></ul><ul><li>Better: </li></ul><ul><li>1. If a mango weighs 250 grams, 10 mangoes would weigh ____ grams. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Activity: <ul><li>Prepare three sentence completion questions based on the selection in your activity sheet. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Essay / Short Answer Test
  22. 22. Types of Essay Items: <ul><li>Extended response type </li></ul><ul><li>The test may be answered by the examinee in whatever manner he wants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Do you think teachers should be allowed to work abroad as domestic helpers? Explain your answer. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Two Types of Essay Items: <ul><li>Restricted response type </li></ul><ul><li>The test limits the examinees response may be answered by the examinee’s responses in terms of length, content, style or organization. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Give and explain three reasons why the government should or should not allow teachers to work abroad as domestic helpers. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The task is clearly defined. The students are given an idea on the scope and direction you intended for the answer to take . The question starts with a description of the required behavior to put them in the correct mind frame. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. “Compare” or “Analyze” </li></ul>What to Look for on Essay Tests
  25. 25. <ul><li>The questions are written in the linguistic level appropriate to the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions require a student to demonstrate command of background information , not simply repeating information. </li></ul>What to Look for on Essay Tests
  26. 26. <ul><li>Questions regarding a student’s opinion on a certain issue should focus not on the opinion but on the way it is presented and argued. </li></ul><ul><li>A larger number of shorter, more specific questions are better, than, one or two longer questions . </li></ul>What to Look for on Essay Tests
  27. 27. Proposed Criteria in Grading Essay Test <ul><li>Ideas (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Weight of Evidence Presented (40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Correct Usage (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Conclusions drawn from the evidence (20%) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Example: <ul><li>What is wrong with this question? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe asthma? </li></ul><ul><li>Better: (Clearly explain what is expected of the student.) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe asthma. Include in your answer : </li></ul><ul><li>the pathophysiologic features of asthma </li></ul><ul><li>the clinical manifestations associated with an asthma episode </li></ul><ul><li>the management of an asthma episode. (10 points) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Example: <ul><li>What is wrong with this question? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is better, Rizal or Bonifacio? </li></ul>Better: ( The students are given an idea on the scope and direction you intended for the answer to take. ) Compare and contrast the method used by Rizal and Bonifacio in promoting nationalism. (5 points)
  30. 30. Activity: <ul><li>Prepare two essay questions based on the selection in your activity sheet. It should cover the extended response type and the restrictive response type . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Other types of Test Questions
  32. 32. Restricted Response Test (RRT) <ul><li>Test takers are not given choices as possible answers. Items ask for a specific answer to each questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who discovered the Philippines? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enumerate the four elements of the state? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Principles in constructing RRT <ul><li>Do not ask for trivial facts or details. It is not only useless but also frustrates the students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many balls are used in a 9-ball match? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions should elicit facts not opinions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think Pres. GMA should do for the country to recover from its’ economic deficit? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimize questions that call for sheer memory work unless if the answer has important analytical significance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When will the next president be sworn to office? </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Test takers are asked to arrange items in a systematic or logical order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange the presidents according to their term of office. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Fidel Ramos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Joseph Estrada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Corazon Aquino </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>_____ Gloria Macapagal - Arroyo </li></ul></ul></ul>Chronological Sequencing Test (CST)
  35. 35. Principles in constructing CST <ul><li>Items should be homogenous and are related to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>There should not be more than 5 items in each set. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not number the items. This confuses the students. </li></ul><ul><li>All items to be arranged should be in the same page. </li></ul><ul><li>Directions should be clearly stated and that each set should be labeled about their relevance. </li></ul>
  36. 36. What is wrong in this test question? <ul><li>Arrange the following events in their chronological order. </li></ul><ul><li>Bataan Surrenders </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese attacks the US fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler invades Poland </li></ul><ul><li>The US declares war with Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Gen. MacArthur escapes to Australia. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Better: <ul><li>21-25.) War in the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the following events in chronological order. Write the numbers 1-5 on the blanks provided. </li></ul><ul><li>___ USAFEE forces in Bataan surrender to the Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>___ Japanese forces attacks the US fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>___ Japan breaks diplomatic ties with the US. </li></ul><ul><li>___ The US declares war with Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>___ Gen. MacArthur escapes to Australia from Corregidor. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Proposed Arrangement of Test Items <ul><li>True or False </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Matching Type </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Completion </li></ul><ul><li>Others (RRT/Analogy/CST) </li></ul><ul><li>Essay </li></ul>
  39. 39. Things to Remember: <ul><li>Making a good test takes time </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers have the obligation to provide their students with the best evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Tests play an essential role in the life of the students, parents, teachers and other educators </li></ul><ul><li>Break any of the rules when you have a good reason for doing so! (emphasis mine) </li></ul>(Mehrens, 1973)
  40. 40. <ul><li>A good lesson makes a good question </li></ul><ul><li>A good question makes a good content </li></ul><ul><li>A good content makes a good test </li></ul><ul><li>A good test makes a good grade </li></ul><ul><li>A good grade makes a good student </li></ul><ul><li>A good student makes a good COMMUNITY </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus Ochave Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>VP Research Planning & Development </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine Normal University </li></ul>POINTS TO PONDER…
  41. 41. For questions , comments or if you want to download this file, log-on to: http://www.slideshare.net/ArnelSSI Thank Y u!