WHAT IS A GROUP A collection of two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of interaction between them who share common goals and who perceive themselves to be a group. Hence it is an outcome of :-- Mutual interaction- Regular face to face interaction- Sustained period of time- Shared interest- Mutual awareness and collective identity
1. TWO OR MORE PERSONS Atleast two members are required for the existence of a group Dependency on each other Awareness that the job success cannot be achieved without each others success
2. INTERACTION Each member must interact with one more member on a regular basis. Communication is necessitated- face to face, telephonic, computer, etc
3. REASONABLE SIZE Tendency to grow upto any size Groups of reasonable size are ideal for an organization Large groups hinders the flow of communication
4. SHARED GOAL INTEREST The efforts of every member should be purported for realization of common goal Each member needs to share common interest
5. STABILITY Groups must have stable structure Groups tend to change, but there must be consistency in there relationship. Group stability enables the members to be together and keep functioning as a unit.
6. COLLECTIVE IDENTITIY Each member believes that he is a member of or is a participant in some specific group Hence the awareness of each other clearly differentiates a group from a mere collection of persons
WARMTH & GOAL SUPPORT ACCOMPLISHMENT POWER REASONS FOR GROUPPROXIMITY FORMATION AFFILIATIONS RECOGNITION SECURITY
1.Warmth & Support-Groups provide love, warmth & support- Sense of being loved and belongingness motivates employees to perform better-While, the solitary & the feeling of confinement brings dissatisfaction among the employees2. POWER-Unity has a considerable strength-What cannot be achieved individually can be realised through joint coordinated efforts
3. AFFILIATIONS- A regular, healthy interaction among members has a soothing effect on psychology- Exchanging smiles, chatting, group participation leads to a sense of togetherness- Some members have a genuine appetite for such lively social interactions4. RECOGNITION- Work group is a primary source of recognition, esteem & status for many individuals- Membership in a high status group can help an individual acquire esteem and praise in the eyes of people outside the group.
5. PROXIMITY- People tend to form groups with people who live or work together in close surroundings-Proximity makes it possible to learn about each others characteristics, exchange ideas & attitudes regarding on & off the job activities6. GOAL ACCOMPLISHMENT- The pool of acumen, specialization, experience enables to resolve complex organisational problems-The collective & coordinated efforts of members provide a synergetic effect in accomplishing the goals
TYPES OF GROUPS1.Formal Groups2.Informal Groups
MODELS OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR1. Moreno’s Sociometric Analysis2. Homans Model
SOCIOGRAM REPRESENTATIONSLikeDislike D A B Can you identify? 1. The Isolate 2. The Leader 3. Any Alliances E C
SOCIOGRAM REPRESENTATIONS Like Dislike D A B1. Isolate = D2. Leader = A3. Alliances = A & E C B, C & E
GROUP COHESION • The concept of cohesion has been an important factor in the study of group behavior and its significance is often a source of motivation for group leaders. • Cliches such as "Together We Stand, Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team", or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often used to show individuals the importance of team cohesion.
Cohesion = Attraction, Liking Attraction between members Attraction Cohesion Attraction to the group-as- a-whole
Cohesion = Unity Cohesive groups stick together as members “cohere” to one another &the group The group is unified; solidarity is high in the group. Members report feeling a sense of belonging to the group
Cohesion = Unity Group Unity Unity Cohesion Belonging (part of the group)
DETERMINANTS OF GROUP COHESIVENESS Location Status
GROUP DECISION MAKINGGroup Decision Making is an activity based on the adage that“two heads are better than one”. It permits the coming togetherof people with heterogeneous characteristics who canunderstand the problem in a better way and hence, developcreative alternatives leading to effective group performance.Most decision in organization are made in a group contextonly.Group Vs. The Individual.
The Decision- Making Process Define the Evaluate Implement the Problem Alternatives chosen AlternativeGather facts and Select the best Follow up and evaluate develop alternative. the chosen alternative. alternatives.
STRENGTH OF GROUP DECISION MAKING Greater knowledge & information. More approaches to a problem. Increased acceptance. Better comprehension of the decision.
WEAKNESSES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING. Time consuming. Pressures to conform. Individual domination. Conflicting alternative solutions. The problem of responsibility.
GROUP DECISION MAKING TECHNIQUES. ORDINARY GROUP INTERACTION Members meet face to face. Rely on verbal and non verbal interaction to communicate each other. Interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion. BRAINSTORMING Process for generating ideas. Members express themselves freely, means as many alternatives as they can give. No criticism is allowed.
NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE Restrict verbal interaction between members. A nominal group is simply a paper group. The essential idea is to restrict interpersonal communication and increase the deliberation and contribution of individual members. It is superior to real groups in terms of number of ideas, uniqueness of ideas and quality of ideas.
DELPHI TECHNIQUEMembers in Delphi technique are physically dispersed and donot meet face to face.The key to Delphi process is the anonymous input.The anonymous tends to eliminate the counter productiveeffects that status, intimidation, emotion, face saving andargumentation can have in traditional interacting group decisionmaking procedures.This technique is used for long range forecasting.