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Achieving rice self-sufficiency in Africa


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AfricaRice Director General Dr Harold Roy-Macauley made a presentation on “Achieving rice self-sufficiency in Africa,” which served as a basis for an in-depth discussion by a panel of speakers consisting of Mr Ade Adefeko, Vice President and Head of Corporate and Government Relations at Olam-Nigeria; Mr Pieter Grobler, Head of Land Development at Dangote Rice Limited; and Mr Busuyi Okeowo, Deputy Team Leader at Growth & Employment in States (GEMS 4), Nigeria.

The panel discussion was organized as part of the Third Edition of the Agra Innovate West Africa Conference, on 23 November 2016 in Lagos, Nigeria, with support from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) and the Nigeria Agribusiness Group (NABG).

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Achieving rice self-sufficiency in Africa

  1. 1. Achieving self-sufficiency in rice in Africa Dr Harold Roy-Macauley Director General Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)
  2. 2. Importance of rice in SSA: facts & figures • A strategic and political crop in SSA: demand growing at more than 6% per year – faster than for any other food staple in SSA • Most important dietary energy source in West Africa and Madagascar and 2nd most important in Africa • A pathway out of poverty, employment opportunities for young men and women entering job markets
  3. 3. • Before the 70s several countries in Africa were self-sufficient in rice and even exported surplus to the region: Madagascar, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Guinea, RDC, etc., • Beyond the 70s: These countries became net importers of rice • Why? World Bank and FMI restructuring ? Complacency of African governments ? Availability of huge quantities of cheap rice from Asia? SSA: from food exporter to importer
  4. 4. Case for rice self-sufficiency in Africa • 2007/2008 food (rice) crisis • Restriction on rice export for their own food security in 2007/2008 - India, Vietnam, Pakistan and Brazil • Increase in international trading price of rice by more than 300% - from US$ 300 to US$ 1,200 per ton in just 4 months • Soaring rice prices led to riots in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Senegal, Mali…
  5. 5. Case for rice self-sufficiency in SSA • Africa spends about US$ 5 billion dollars on rice import annually • Diversion of valuable foreign exchange - Nigeria imported about 3 million tons of rice in 2015, at US$ 850 million • Emerging opportunities • China has become a big rice importer - US$ 1.5 billion in 2015 • Climate change: yield losses in rice estimated between 10 and 15% Rice and wheat account for one-fifth of all agricultural imports in SSA
  6. 6. 0.49 0.91 0.57 0.96 0.80 0.88 0.25 0.77 0.39 0.32 0.20 0.40 0.18 0.05 0.30 0.31 0.19 0.63 0.67 0.31 0.64 0.05 0.49 Rice self-sufficiency rate in some countries
  7. 7. Rice self-sufficiency: a complex concept in SSA • Rice consumption is strongly linked to population growth rate, particularly urban population • As SSA’s Africa’s population explodes, so will the population of rice eaters on the continent • Rice self-sufficiency targets set by several countries: Senegal and Cote d’Ivoire by 2017; Nigeria by 2018; • But strong lobby of importers in many SSA countries
  8. 8. Multiple challenges to rice self-sufficiency • Huge yield gap: about 1.4 t / ha compared to 3.4 t / ha (worldwide) • Continued use of old varieties • Poor water management capacity • Low mechanization use by smallholders • Low incentive for farmers (credits) • Limited access to markets • Weak links between rice value chain actors - especially the private sector • Climate change • Inadequate implementation of policies to boost the sector
  9. 9. Can SSA be rice self-sufficient? Significant progress made • Mali, Madagascar, Guinea and Sierra Leone already near self- sufficiency • FAO: Africa paddy production in 2016 at 29.7 MT (19.4 MT milled rice) a new record • Unprecedented rice production and yield growth rates in SSA between 2007-2012 - due to R&D efforts and government investments • AfricaRice vision: help Africa achieve 90% rice self-sufficiency by 2020
  10. 10. Scalable innovations along the rice value chain
  11. 11. Varieties > 200 improved rice varieties released in last 30 years in Africa: • ARICA varieties: high-performing and climate- smart • NERICA varieties: area under upland NERICAs : 1.7 million ha; adoption has lifted about 8 million people out of poverty in 16 countries • Sahel varieties: high-yielding for irrigated ecologies: In Senegal, average yield increased by 872 kg per ha and incomes by $227 per cropping season; present value of net benefits of Sahel adoption $ 24.6 million • Hybrids: More than 50 developed by AfricaRice show 15-20% yield advantage compared with inbred check. Two hybrids selected for release in Senegal in 2016
  12. 12. Some mega varieties Variety name Ecology Yield (t/ha) Aroma ARICA 1 Lowland 6.0 ARICA 3 Lowland 7.8 ARICA 5 Upland 3.8 NERICA 1 Upland 4.5 NERICA 4 Upland 4.5 NERICA 6 Upland 4.5 NERICA L-19 Lowland 6.0 NERICA L-20 Lowland 6.0 ORYLUX 1 Irrigated 8.0 Aromatic ORYLUX 3 Irrigated 6.3 Aromatic ORYLUX 6 Irrigated 6.5 Aromatic
  13. 13. Good agricultural practices (GAP) basket development Intervention Typical farmers’ practice and problems GAP component Variety choice Old varieties New varieties Land preparation Not bunded, not well leveled Bunding & leveling Sowing Random transplanting & delayed sowing Transplanting at optimum density and time Weeding Single herbicide & two hand- weedings Single herbicide & weeding with mechanical weeder Fertilizer application Very variable Site-specific nutrient management Water management Permanent standing water Timing of drainage before harvesting
  14. 14. Crop management decision support tool: RiceAdvice • Allows rice farmers to apply mineral fertilizer more efficiently to optimize production and profits and reduce waste • Helps rice farmers identify the best option for fertilizers to be purchased, based on nutrient requirement and fertilizer prices • Farmers can increase rice yield by about 20% and increase their profit margin by about $200 per hectare per season
  15. 15. Weed management decision support • Total rice production losses attributable to weeds in SSA estimated at US$ 1.5 billion • Tool for identifying major rice weeds of Africa • Valuable resource for professionals involved in research, training and management of rice weeds in SSA
  16. 16. Improved land & water management Smart-valleys approach • A low-cost, participatory and sustainable approach to develop inland valleys for rice-based systems • Major advantages: increased water retention in farmers’ fields, less risk of fertilizer losses due to flooding and increased rice yields • In Togo and Benin, average rice yields of farmers using Smart-valleys approach more than doubled from 1.5–2 to 3.5– 4.5 t/ha • Impact studies indicate the potential adoption rate is 67%
  17. 17. Mechanization • Motorized weeders • Threshers • Combine harvesters
  18. 18. Improved quality of processed rice - GEM rice parboiler • Energy-efficient, shortens processing time, reduces drudgery, and does not expose the women parboilers to heat burns • Training and innovation platform approach: improving the livelihood of more than a 1000 rural women in Benin and Nigeria • More than doubling average monthly production of and income from parboiled rice produced Milling machine
  19. 19. From production focus to value chain focus Pioneering work on experimental auctions and value chain development in Senegal Packaging, branding and labeling of locally produced rice for urban and niche markets to enhance consumer attractiveness to locally produced rice in Glazou IP Parboiled rice “Riz Saveur” in Glazoue IP
  20. 20. Private sector: partners for scaling up • Bringing together small-to-medium (SMEs) seed enterprises and scientists • Collaborating with private sector on certified and quality rice seed production • FASO KABA in Mali, • NASECO Seed Company in partnership with NARO in Uganda; • NAFASO in Burkina Faso • ASI thresher manufacturing in partnership with private sector/SME blacksmiths in Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal
  21. 21. Youth entrepreneurship in rice value chain: conceptual framework • Competence and skills for youths and women in agribusiness enhanced • Significant return on investment when improved rice technologies, innovations and services are combined • Coaching & mentoring youth and women to take lead role in modernizing the rice sector Quality rice seed AWM SMART-valleys Weeders RiceAdvice ASI Thresher GEM rice Parboiler Packaging Branding
  22. 22. Contribution to Nigeria’s Rice Transformation Agenda (RTA) • AfricaRice has provided major inputs into the rice component of Nigeria’s Agricultural Transformation Agenda: • Secondment of 3 experts to the Rice Value Chain (unit) of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) • AfricaRice’s best technologies were given for adoption in Nigeria • Support to seed supply and seed systems development • Support to rice-sector mechanization. • Training and other capacity-development inputs THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK HAS REQUESTED AFRICARICE TO LEAD THE SUPPORT TO COUNTIRES IN ACHIEVING RICE-SELF- SUFFICIENCY IN AFRICA THROUGH DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINENTAL RICE SELF-SUFFIIENCY PLAN LOOKING FORWARD TO THE SUPPORT FROM ALL STAKEHOLDRS
  23. 23. Thank you