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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

Dr Senthilkumar Kalimuthu
AfricaRice Extension agronomist

TAAT Rice Compact Launch and Knowledge Sharing Workshop


6 - 7 September 2018
M’be, Bouake
Cote d’Ivoire

Published in: Science
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Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

  1. 1. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) GAP an integrated set of recommended crop, soil, water and weed management practice
  2. 2. List of GAP component technologies • Land clearing • Tillage • Bunding • Preflooding • Puddling • Levelling • Cultivar choice • Certified seeds • Nursery sowing • Planting method • Thinning/Gap-filling • Fertiliser application (using RiceAdvice) • Weeding • Flooding • Drainage • …. etc.
  3. 3. In SSA – 30 to 90% (van Oort et al, 2015) Current rice yield gaps Farmer level yield gaps in rice hubs (Yield gap = difference between average yield and top 10% max yield)
  4. 4. Potential of closing rice yield gap with GAP–e.g. TZ Yield ceiling with traditional varieties! 1. No N, no weeding (-N,-W), 2. Clean weeding but no N (-N,+W), 3. Recommended N but no weeding ((+N,-W) 4. Clean weeding with recommend N (split applied) (+N,+W), 5. Optimum management (e.g. complete fertilizer application (NPK) suitable to obtain 80 % of potential yield; pest and disease control –with farmers (+NPK,+W).
  5. 5. Yield advantages with GAP • 4.2 to 7.3 t/ha in Cote d’Ivoire (Becker and Johnson, 1999) • 3.9 to 8.5 t/ha in Mauritania (Haefele et al. 2001) • 5.6 to 9.0 t/ha in Senegal (Krupnik et al, 2012) • 4.8 to 7.8 t/ha in Benin (Tanaka et al. 2013) • 1.8-2.2 to 3.2-4.5 t/ha (max 8.5 t/ha) in Tanzania (Senthilkumar et al, 2018)
  6. 6. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) introduction and their impact on yield in SSA • GAP were introduced in 30 rice hubs in 19 countries between 2013 to 2015 • 3 to 4 GAP component technologies were identified per hub and introduced for one or two seasons • 20 to 30 farmers tested the GAP per hub per season • The prominent GAP technologies introduced were on • Land preparation – e.g. bunding & levelling, tillage, puddling, and SAWAH • Improved variety & seeds – e.g. NERICA1, NERICA4, NERICA-L19, NERICA-L36, FKR19, WITA9, Ediget, Amankwatia, Gbewaa & certified seeds & seed treatment • Crop establishment method & timing – e.g. line planting or sowing at 20 or 25 cm line and plant spacing. • Inorganic fertilizer application & timing – e.g. N, K & P containing fertilizers at recommended rates • Weed management options – e.g. Rotary weeders, herbicides, additional hand weeding • GAP yields were compared with previous YGS yields (2012-2014)
  7. 7. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) introduction and their impact on yield Overall impact in all the rice growing conditions in SSA 1:1 line  Large yield advantages realized with GAP in most of the rice hubs in SSA  Over all 1 t/ha yield increase with GAP (only with 3-4 components) in SSA  Yield increase per rice growing condition:  Rainfed lowland: 1.2 t/ha  Irrigated lowland: 0.7 t/ha  Rainfed upland: 1 t/ha  Yield reduction with GAP in few hubs could be due to:  Weather variability  Improper use of GAP
  8. 8. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) introduction and their impact on yield Rainfed lowland (for e.g.) • GAP yields were between 3.1 to 6.3 t/ha; while YGS yields were between 2.2 to 5.8 t/ha • Largest yield increase was observed with GAP under Rainfed lowland conditions in SSA • 12 to 282% increase in yield with GAP compared to YGS yield • More then 100% yield increase in Benin and Ghana
  9. 9. Previous outscaling efforts of GAP • 8 GAP charts developed (Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania) • In 2016, GAP was disseminated to farmers 72 in Benin, 100 in Côte d’Ivoire, 150 in Ghana, 322 in Madagascar, 150 -Nigeria, 40 – Sierra Leone, and 717 in Tanzania. • 1000 copies of GAP chart cum year planner was disseminated in Tanzania. • Currently 1500 farmers being trained on GAP in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania in 2018
  10. 10. Major constraints for GAP adoption • Limited knowledge of producers on importance of GAP • Accessibility and availability of GAP component technologies (e.g. Certified seeds & Fertilizers) • Lack of enough extension personals & support • Lack of large scale effort for technology dissemination
  11. 11. GAP training to service providers and lead farmers (to finalize GAP) by AfricaRice and NARIs staff Lead farmers practice and demonstrate GAP in their farm. Neighboring farmers learn from lead farmers though Farmer Field Days (at least 100 Neighboring farmers learn from a lead farmer) Service providers and AfricaRice staff provide backstopping to lead farmers Neighboring farmers practice GAP in their field and get higher yields Service providers facilitate Farmer Field Days Impact pathway Example: annual budget 135K USD 30 service providers and 75 Lead farmers trained 100 Neighboring farmers learn from each Lead farmer - 7575 farmers Additional 2275 tons paddy produced (assuming 0.3 ha/farmer and 1 t/ha yield increase) TAAT -Soil fertility compact (IFDC) - providing fertilizers Seed system – providing certified seeds Total beneficiaries reached 60,600 (assuming 8 person per household)
  12. 12. Follow-up survey after GAP demos and FFDs in Tanzania in 2015 GAP demonstrations and Farmer Field days are effective in Farmer’s learning and yield increase 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Harvestafterdemos(t/ha) Harvest before demos (t/ha) Demo farmers (n=18) Mean yield before demos: 2.6 t/ha Mean yield after demos: 5.9 t/ha Mean yield before FFD: 2.4 t/ha Mean yield after FFD: 4.1 t/ha
  13. 13. Country (site) Partners* and their roles within the IPs Cote d’Ivoire (Man) CNRA & Agence Nationale d'Appui au Développement Rural (ANADER): Dissemination of weeders and GAP to farmers AfricaRice: Providing technical support and backstopping Uganda (Olweny, West Nile) Africa Innovations Institute (AfrII) – provide training to service providers and farmers on GAP including SmartFert options AfricaRice/NARO: Providing technical support and backstopping Madagascar (Ankazomiriotra, Ambohibary,) SE/CNFAR - Provide training to service providers and farmers on GAP AfricaRice/FOFIFA – Provide technical assistance and backstopping * Partners are yet to be finalized Thank you very much!

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