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Seed systems and rice seed capital in Africa

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Presented at the High-Level Ministerial (HLM) Conference on Rice Development in Sub-Saharan Africa 25 September 2018
Dakar, Senegal

Presented by Dr Amadou Beye, Seed Specialist,
Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice)

Published in: Science
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Seed systems and rice seed capital in Africa

  1. 1. Establishing a seed capital at M’bé station Bouaké Harold Roy-Macauley and Amadou Beye 25-27 September 2019, Dakar
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation 1.Importance of rice 2. Key reference data 3.AfricaRice advantages for a seed capital 4.Benefits of the Rice Seed Capital 5. Conclusion
  3. 3. 1. Importance of rice Nutritional value Rice is a high-energy which contains: • Proteins (Body tissues, Source of energy and hormones) • Fats (Source of energy, Maintains core body temperature) • Carbohydrates – Glucids Cn(H2O)p – glucose, starch (Source of energy) • Fibers (Management of weight, cholesterol, blood sugar) • Minerals like Ca, P, Fe, Na, K and Vitamins (Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin and Tocopherol Rice plays an important role in health benefits and disease prevention such as high blood pressure, cancer, skin care, dysentery, cholesterol Socio-cultural value • Diets habits, Different social ceremonies as symbol of prosperity and fertility (Wedding) and rituals served to God and devotees (Circumcisions, Funerals) • Biodiversity (Wild rices)
  4. 4. 2. Key reference data • Current production: 17 Million T • Consumption: 32 million T • Gap: 15 Million T (47%) • Import bill: US$ 6.0 million • Projections for 2025:  Gap: 27 Million Tonnes  Import bill : US$ 10.8 billion Increased import gap: consumption increased by 6.2% /year while prod. increased by 4.6% This implies among others increased prod. breeder and foundation seeds Official requests:  Resolution 30th Ordinary Session of AfricaRice CoM (2016)  Request of NEC (2017) AfricaRice should support countries in constituting strategic seed reserves This calls for the establishment of a Pan-African Rice Seed Capital Figure 1: Diagrammatic expression of milled rice demand versus local supply in Africa
  5. 5. Particularities of SSA: 80% of productions by smallholder farmers
  6. 6. 60,000 45,000 8,300 113,000 83,000 20,460 13,000 350,000 16,000 8,000 1,200 5,000 800 2,500 5,818 1,000 600 93,000 600 250 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 Côte d’Ivoire Senegal Benin Madagascar Mali Uganda Sierra Leone Nigeria Cameroon Chad 2015 2013 2013 2013 2012 2012 2010 2010 2010 2010 Annual needs (Tons) Seeds produced (Tons) Figure 2: Seed needs and productions (NRDS, 2016) National Rice Development Strategy
  7. 7. Countries Varieties Acreage to be planted with R1 seeds (ha, %) Expected production (Tons) R1 G3 G2 CIV WITA 9, WAB 638-1, CY2 20,000 (27%) 1,000 33 0.83 Guinea NERICA L 19, WITA 9 15,000 (10%) 750 25 0.63 Niger Kogoni 91/1, NERICA L19 3,500 (17.5%) 140 4.7 0.12 Sierra Leone ROK 10, NERICA L19 17,400 (2%) 1,392 70 2.32 Togo 77,300 (2%) 3,860 129 3.22 Countries Varieties Acreage to be planted with R1 seeds (ha, %) Expected production (Tons) R1 G4 G3 G2 CIV WAB 56-50, Akadi, IDSA 10 100,000 (8%) 10,000 500 25 0.83 Guinea NERICA 4, ARICA2 30,000 (10%) 3,000 150 7.5 0.25 Sierra Leone NERICA 4, NERICA 11, ROK 34 8,700 (1%) 609 - 30 1.02 Togo IR 841, Orylux 6, NERICA L 14 50,500 (1%) 5,050 253 13 0.42 Irrigated / Lowland ecologies Upland ecology Table 1: Seed Road Map of 5 countries for 2018 (WAAPP, 2016)
  8. 8. 3. AfricaRice comparative advantages for seed capital a) A strong team of Seed Experts and Technicians b) A production station in Côte d’Ivoire, with 4 rice agro-ecologies c) Decentralized stations (Benin, Madagascar, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra L) d) National country stations (Developed partnership with the NARIs) e) A Genetic Diversity Improvement Program to develop new improved rice varieties in partnership with NARIs f) A modern Genebank that houses nearly 22,000 accessions of genetic resources, including traditional African rice varieties g) A Seed Unit responsible for producing large quantities of genetic materials required by the market The Seed Capital will comprise, for each variety, the following classes: Classes Implementing institutions Remarks Breeder seed (G1, G2, G3) AfricaRice + NARIs Breeder seeds for production of G4 seeds. Tag: White color with diagonal violet stripes Foundation (G4) AfricaRice + NARIs Foundation seeds for production of R1, R2 seeds. Tag: White color is issued by SCU Certified seed (R1, R2) Private Seed enterprises / Cooperatives Seeds resulting from first or second multiplication of Foundation seeds. Blue and red color tags for R1 and R2 seeds
  9. 9. 4. Benefits of the Pan-African Rice Seed Capital • Establishment of a seed strategic stock in case of disasters such as droughts, flooding, and civil wars • Possibilities to better exploit the diversity of rice species including:  White rices: rich in Glucids, Minerals and Vitamins  Red rices: rich in Iron and Zinc (efficient against anemia), good source of fiber.  Black and purple rices which are rich: o Vit. B and Vit. E, useful for immune health and diabetics o Dietary fibers (Cancer), Fe (against anemia), Potassium (Muscle) • Establishment of functional seed systems (G0, G1, G2, G3, G4, R1, R2 – In CIV: Involvement of National Seed Control and Certfication Services –LANASEM, DGSPA, SDSI) Farmers: Economic gain from use of certified seeds in irrigated zones estimated at US$ 868 ≠ US$ 526 /ha for farmer-saved seed (+65%). Enterprises: Gain expected for delivery of 1.5 million T of R2 certified seeds for rice self-sufficiency. Estimated at US$ 3 billion.
  10. 10. Diversity of rices
  11. 11. Year 2 021 2 022 2 023 2 024 2 025 Research institutions AR NARIs (26) AR NARIs (26) AR NARIs (26) AR NARIs (26) AR NARIs (26) Breeder / Foun- dation seed (T) 300 1 300 400 2 600 500 3 900 700 5 200 1 000 6 500 Certified seed R1 (T) 6 000 26 000 8 000 52 000 10 000 78 000 14 000 104 000 20 000 130 000 Certified seed R2 (T) 60 000 260 000 80 000 520 000 100 000 780 000 140 000 1 040 000 200 000 1 300 000 Total R2 seed (T) 320 000 600 000 880 000 1 180 000 1 500 000 Nber enterprises / cooperatives 600 2 600 800 5 200 1 000 7 800 1 400 10 400 2 000 13 000 Paddy produced (T) 5 333 333 10 000 000 14 666 667 19 666 667 25 000 000 Table 2: Self-sufficiency program - Quantities of seed to be produced (2021 – 2025) Nber farmers beneficiaries 8 000 000 15 000 000 22 000 000 29 500 000 37 500 000 Impact: - Youth employment: 150,000 - Farmers: 37,500,000
  12. 12. Stakeholders Buying price / Prod. costs Charges Total costs Selling price Profit margins Total AfricaRice + NARIs 1,53 0,44 1,97 2,83 0,86 6 450 000 Private Enterprises / Cooperatives 0,55 0,16 0,71 1,19 0,48 720 000 000 Paddy Producer - - 0,14 0,27 0,13 3 250 000 000 Processors - - - - 0,05 738 636 364 Transporters 0,11 0,01 0,13 0,15 0,02 530 000 000 Traders of milled rice - - - - 0,05 812 500 000 Table 3: Profit margins expected by 2025 by each actor (US$)
  13. 13. 5. Conclusion a) Investing in the establishment of a Pan-African Rice Seed Capital is a profitable model for countries and for all the rice value chain actors. b) Potential impact:  A good opportunity for research institutions (AfricaRice, NARIs) to benefit from generated revenues and become more stable in order to carry out first class research and generate relevant improved products for farmers.  A good opportunity for youth employment: - AfricaRice and NARIs: At least 150 Scientists and Technicians - Enterprises &cooperatives: 150,000 Technicians and Managers - Farms: 37,500,000 farmers To be able to run this model, AfricaRice will need regular funding. An amount of FCFA 0.5 (US$ 0.001) could be recovered from each kg of the 9.8 million T of imported rice in ECOWAS zone (USDA, 2017). This will generate an annual revenue of $US 9.0 million which represents around 36% of AfricaRice budget. If accepted by the CoM, a management organ will be established to pursue this
  14. 14. Emergency seeds Thanks a lot

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