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Th5_Do current ICTs fill the gender gap in agricultural knowledge transfer? Evidence from five African countries

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 5: Innovation systems and ICT tools for rice value chain
Mini symposium 1: Rice knowledge management using traditional media
Author: Kabore

Published in: Technology, Education
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Th5_Do current ICTs fill the gender gap in agricultural knowledge transfer? Evidence from five African countries

  1. 1. Do current ICTs fill the gender gap in agricultural knowledge transfer? Evidence from five African countries A. Kabore1, C. Raboanarielina,1 A.R. AgbohNoameshie,1 A. Touré1 and M. Misiko2 1Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), Cotonou, Benin 2International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Methodology Findings and discussion Conclusion Lessons learned
  3. 3. Introduction  Women are critical players in the agricultural sector in SSA (70 - 80% of active farming population)  Yet, women still face with problems of access and control of resources for agricultural productivity  FAO (2011) asserts that if women had better access to resources, they could increase yields by 20-30%  Resources very often are cited to mean land, labour, equipment and capital  Knowledge resources are often not mentioned or only implied.
  4. 4. Introduction  Mechanism used for the flow of knowledge resources is sometime not gender-sensitive  Limited capacity of extension officers:  Fewer number of extension officers  Fewer possibilities for updating knowledge  Gender bias in agricultural extension and advisory service delivery:  Only 7% of extension officers are women in Africa (WDR, 2012)  In Ghana, 12% of male-headed households received extensions visits, versus 2 % of female-headed households. In male-headed households, only 2% of spouses received a visit (WDR, 2012)
  5. 5. Introduction  ICT (radio, TV, mobile phone) development offer new perspective to widen agricultural information and knowledge transmission  Can ICT offer an untapped potential to fill the agric. extension gender gap and improve the knowledge-transfer?
  6. 6. Methodology  Study conducted in rice growing villages in the targeted countries (10 villages in Guinea and 7 in Cameroon)  Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussions used to gather data  Stratified random sampling based on gender (equal number of respondents - female & male farmers targeted in the surveyed villages)  Data analysis using SPSS (descriptive statistics and t-test for comparing groups of men & women)
  7. 7. Is there a (gender) GAP in rice information and knowledge transfer to smallholders farmers?
  8. 8. Smallholder farmer access to rice information & knowledge through conventional means Guinea (N = 200) Public agricultural extension Agricultural NGO Agricultural research Farmer training Center Seed companies/ agro-dealers Cameroon (N = 100) Public agricultural extension Agricultural NGO Agricultural research Farmer training Center Seed companies/ agro-dealers Men (n=99) Women (n=101) Yes No Yes No 2.4% 97.6% 5.9% 94.1% 2.1% 97.9% 5.9% 94.1% 1.0% 99.0% 3.0% 97.0% 100% - 100% 100% 1.0% 99.5% Men (n=53) Yes No 30.2% 69.8% 5.7% 94.3% 3.8% 96.2% 1.9% 98.1% 1.9% 98.1% Women (n=47) Yes No 34.0% 66.0% 6.4% 93.6% 6.4% 93.6% 4.3% 95.7% 4.3% 95.7%
  9. 9. What opportunities do ICTs (i.e. radio, TV and cellphone) offer to fill/ bridge this GAP?
  10. 10. Access and ownership of media-related assets (radio, television, mobile phones) in the survey areas? Ownership of media-related assets in the surveyed households Cameroon N = 100 Men (n=53) Women (n=47) Guinea N = 200 Men (n=53) Women (n=47) Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Radio 77.4% 22.6% 78.7% 21.3% TV Cellphone 50.9% 71.7% 49.1% 28.3% 69.6% 87.2% 30.4% 12.8% Radio TV Cellphone 100.0% 11.1% 55.6% - 88.9% 44.4% 100.0% 5.9% 56.0% - 94.1% 44.0% Cameroon • All media-related assets owned by more than 50% of both men & women • Women seem to own more media-related assets • Cellphone is the 1st most common media, radio the 2nd Guinea • Radio is the most important and common media asset own by both men & women • Cellphone ownership - half • TV is not widespread
  11. 11. Access and ownership of media-related assets (radio, television, mobile phones) in the survey areas? Ownership of media-related assets in the survey areas Cameroon N = 100 Men (n=53) Women (n=47) Guinea N = 200 Men (n=53) Women (n=47) Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Radio 77.4% 22.6% 78.7% 21.3% TV Cellphone 50.9% 71.7% 49.1% 28.3% 69.6% 87.2% 30.4% 12.8% Radio TV Cellphone 100.0% 11.1% 55.6% - 88.9% 44.4% 100.0% 5.9% 56.0% - 94.1% 44.0% Cameroon • All media-related assets owned by more than 50% of both men & women • Women seem to own more media-related assets • Cellphone is the 1st most common media, radio the 2nd Guinea • Radio is the most important and common media asset own by both men & women • Cellphone ownership - half • TV is not widespread Media-related assets (radio & cellphone and in least proportion TV) are commonly own by both men & women. Does it imply that it is possible to harness those ICTs to enable learning and enhance rice productivity?
  12. 12. How to harness ICT to enhance rice information and knowledge sharing to improve rice productivity?
  13. 13. Source of rice productivity enhancing information and knowledge Land preparation Association/Union ONG NGO TV Cellphone Farmer Radio rurale Agro-dealer Women Men TV Women Men Recherche Radio Union/ Association Research (IRAD) ANPROCA (ext) Public Extension 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Cameroon 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Guinea
  14. 14. Source of rice productivity enhancing information and knowledge Crop management Association/Union RTN NGO ONG Cellphone TV Farmer Agro-dealer Women Radio rurale Women Men Men TV Recherche Radio Union/ Association Research (IRAD) ANPROCA (ext) Public Extension 0% 20% 40% Cameroon 60% 80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Guinea
  15. 15. Source of rice productivity enhancing information and knowledge Post harvest Association/Union RTG NGO ONG Cellphone TV Farmer Agro-dealer Women Radio rurale Women Men Men TV Recherche Radio Union/ Association Research (IRAD) ANPROCA (ext) Public Extension 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Cameroon 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Guinea
  16. 16. Source of rice productivity enhancing information and knowledge Marketing Association/Union RTG NGO ONG Cellphone TV Farmer Agro-dealer Women Radio rurale Women Men Men TV Recherche Radio Union/ Association Research (IRAD) ANPROCA (ext) Public Extension 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Cameroon 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Guinea
  17. 17. Conclusion  Bring media to serve smallholders, especially women who perform onerous rice activities  For rice learning and development to be scaled out effectively, smallholders should benefit from the potential of ICT in agricultural development  Using rural radio for agricultural information and knowledge dissemination has proven to be a successful and gendersensitive initiative to increase the farmer outreach, fill the agricultural extension gap not only for men but also for women  Potential of rural radio esp. as platforms for better access to rice information and knowledge
  18. 18. Lessons learned  Encourage up-to-date agricultural information and knowledge packaging under audio-visual tools to be used for training (ToT, farmers…) and media  Encourage use of ICTs to complement face-to-face agricultural extension and advisory services to farmers  Encourage extension staff to participate to radio broadcast (interactive broadcasting)  Combine adequately the use of radio, TV and mobile phone for greater success (audio, visualization, interaction)  Build an effective partnership with rural media to fill the agricultural knowledge GAP and equitably reach men and female farmers
  19. 19. Thank you! Merci!

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