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Chapter 1-Advanced dairy p- Wubshet.pptx

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Chapter 1-Advanced dairy p- Wubshet.pptx

  1. 1. Advanced Dairy Production (AnPr1422) For 2nd year Animal production Msc students By Wubshet Tefera ( Msc in dairy science and technology) October, 2015
  2. 2. Chapter 1. introduction • What is dairy production? • Dairying, also called dairy farming, is branch of agriculture that encompass the breeding, raising, and utilization of dairy animals, primarily cows, for production of milk and the various milk product processed from it. • Dairy, a room, building, or establishment were milk is kept and processed • The department of farming or of farm that concerned with production of milk , butter and cheese • Establishment for the sale and distribution of milk and milk product • Milk from a cow or other domestic animal (goat) • Also food(such as ice cream, cheese or yogurt) made primarily from milk • Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
  3. 3. World milk production • Global milk production in 2020 reached nearly 906 million tonnes in 2020, up 2.0 percent from 2019, driven by output increases in all geographical regions, except in Africa, where production remained stable. • Milk volume increases were highest in Asia, followed by Europe, the Americas, Oceania and Central America and the Caribbean • FAO, 2021
  4. 4. Top milk producer countries 1. India – Production in 2019, (in thousands of tonnes): 187,633 – producing more than 20% of the total global milk production – India is also the biggest consumer of milk in the entire world, – as well as the biggest dairy herd in the world, which numbers are over 300 million • Reason for the success of dairy Industry: – Due to integrated co-operative system of milk collection, transportation, processing and distribution.
  5. 5. 2. United States of America • Total production of milk by the country in 2019 (in thousands of tonnes): 99,082 • There are currently more than 40,200 dairy farms in the United States. Reason for the success of dairy Industry: Technological advancements, large grazing field and centralization of American milk farming 3. Pakistan • Total production of milk by the country in 2019 (in thousands of tonnes): 55,957 • In Pakistan, the vast percentage (more than 80%) of milk is produced in rural areas, which dominate the country • There are more than 55 million farmers in this country of 220 million people • Livestock sector of Pakistan is only the economic engine for poverty alleviation.
  6. 6. 4. China • Total production of milk by the country in 2019 (in thousands of tonnes): 36,793 • China is the biggest country in the world by far in terms of population, and is a major player in most industries, including the milk industry • expected to grow by around 4.5% year on year 5. Brazil • Total production of milk by the country in 2019 (in thousands of tonnes): 36,174 • More than 25% of all of Brazil’s agriculture properties have to do with the production of milk • more than 34 billion liters of milk every single year • an annual growth of around 3.7%. Reason for the success of dairy Industry: Large landmass, coupled with large climatic and cultural variations. And also, tropical and temperate pastures are used for year-round rotational grazing in most parts of Brazil.
  7. 7. • African dairy highlight
  8. 8. Ethiopian dairy industry • The first attempt to introduce modern dairy production in the country was made by the Imperial regime in 1947, when 300 Friesian and Brown Swiss dairy cattle were received as a donation from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. • The dairy sector contributes 12–16% to the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 40% to the agricultural GDP of Ethiopia. • Ethiopia's total annual milk production comes from 7.5 million milking cows and is estimated to be 4.96 billion litres, that is, 1.48 L per cow per day on average (CSA, 2021). • From the total milk production, 98% is contributed by smallholder dairy farmers, representing about 85% of milk producers
  9. 9. Milk Production Systems in the Tropics • An estimated 80 to 90 percent of milk in developing countries is produced in small-scale farming systems. • These operations are based on low inputs, so production per dairy animal is quite low. • Most milk produced by smallholders in developing countries comes from one of the following production systems: • Rural smallholder dairying: – Dairying is often part of a mixed farming system in which manure is used for cash crop production. – Dairy animals are fed on grass, crop residues and cultivated fodder. Supplementary feeding is practiced only when feasible.
  10. 10. • Rural smallholder dairying is the dominant livestock production system. • Pastoral/agro-pastoral dairying: These systems are land-based and milk is often the most important subsistence item. Dairy production is generally associated with cropping, but nomadic pastoralists practise little or no agriculture and roam the land in search of grazing grounds and water.
  11. 11. • Peri-urban and urban dairying: • This is a purely market-oriented • located within and close to the boundaries of cities. • their production is based on purchased inputs and may encounter problems of feed supply and waste disposal.
  12. 12. Milk Production Systems in Ethiopia • Milk production systems in Ethiopia classified – rural (smallholder mixed crop-livestock in rural areas, pastoral and agro-pastoral), – urban and peri-urban and – intensive dairy farming. For these production systems, dairy breeds, land, animal feeds and market accessibility are the basis for the classification.
  13. 13. • The rural milk production system is part of the subsistence farming system and – includes pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and mixed crop/livestock producers mainly in the highlands. – The rural milk production system mostly depends on their own inputs and keeps indigenous or local breeds. – The system is not market-oriented and – most of the milk produced is retained for home consumption.
  14. 14. • The pastoral milk production system – In the arid area – 1500 masl and the livelihoods of the people depend entirely on livestock (camels, cattle, goats). • The agro-pastoral milk production system – in the semi-arid part of the country. – The livelihoods of the people depend mainly on livestock + some crop agriculture
  15. 15. • The urban milk production system is – located around Addis Ababa and regional towns and takes the advantage of the urban markets. – In terms of size the urban system consisted of small, medium and large dairy farms. – mostly depends on external inputs and keeps improved breeds.
  16. 16. • The peri-urban milk production system – includes smallholder and commercial dairy farms in the outskirts of Addis Ababa, other regional towns and smaller and district towns. – In terms of feed resources, it has the features of the rural livestock production system. However, market accessibility and concentrate feed supplementation practices are better compared to the rural livestock production system. • Intensive dairy farming : private/ state-owned dairy farm.
  17. 17. Dairy Marketing System • Formal – involves direct delivery of fresh milk by producers to consumer in the immediate neighborhoods or sale to itinerant traders or individuals in nearby towns. – The informal system is characterized by no licensing requirement to operate, low cost of operations, high producer price compared to formal market and no regulation of operations. – In Ethiopia, 95% of the national milk is marketed through informal channels and is unprocessed. • Informal – limited to peri-urban areas and Addis Ababa
  18. 18. SWOT Analysis of Ethiopian dairy industry Current situation Appropriate measures to build on Milk production and consumption culture Development interventions can build on the existing experiences Employment creation Improve policy enabling environment and technical capacity; access to the required resources and services Strengths
  19. 19. Current situation Appropriate measures to correct Low milk production Efficient extension service provision on dairy husbandry practices Lack of capital Access to credit Poor quality milk Efficient and functional quality control system; the required technical skill and dairy infrastructure; quality based payment system Shortage of skilled/trained manpower Capacity building of existing teaching and training centers; producing sufficient professionals at different levels and streams of dairying Difficulty to get land for dairy operation Conducive policy enabling environment Feed shortage (quality and quantity) Improved feed production, conservation and utilization; use of adapted improved forage crops Dominant rain based agricultural Alternative use of water sources (harvesting rain water, ground water, irrigation) Incidence of diseases of economic importance Efficient dairy cattle disease prevention and control system Small proportion of marketed milk and dominance of the informal market Promote cooperative action; improve dairy infrastructure; improve linkage among the key actors; reliable, up-to-date & consistent market information system Weaknesses
  20. 20. Current situation Appropriate measures to exploit Large diversity and population of cattle Selection of cows of better productivity and improve productivity through crossbreeding Existence of conducive environmental conditions for dairy development Maximize the use conducive mid altitude and highland areas for keeping specialized dairy cows and cultivation of improved forage crops Relatively cheap farm labor Improve technical knowledge Increasing interest in investing in the sector Conducive policy environment Increasing population, urbanization and income and trend towards consuming more Increase diversity, improve quantity, quality and distribution of dairy products Opportunities
  21. 21. Current situation Appropriate measures to avert Supply and demand mismatch due to seasonal, spatial and cultural factors Shelf-stable products such as powder milk to transfer the excess from time and place of high production to that of low production Unreliable climatic condition Alternative use of water sources (harvesting rain water, ground water, irrigation); early warning system; climate change adaptation and mitigation mechanism Illegally imported milk products Policy support to domestic products; efficient import controlling system Urban dairy farm organic waste Efficient urban dairy farm organic waste disposal system; alternative use of urban dairy farm organic waste; moving large urban farms to appropriate places in peri-urban areas Threats
  22. 22. CHAPTER – 3: MAJOR DAIRY CATTEL BREEDS AND THEIR CHARACTERSTICS • Dairy cattle’s performance is the function of their genetic composition (breed type) and the environment they face. • The genetic potential of cattle determines its use for a very large part. • Not only does it determine the potential to produce milk, meat or draught power, • but it also determines the environmental circumstances under which the animal will reach an optimal production level.
  23. 23. Breed selection and Evaluation • Characteristics of dairy cow – General appearance – Dairy character – Body capacity – Udder

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