Rural media, agricultural technology adoption and
productivity: Evidence from smallholder rice farmers in
Burkina Faso
Ali...
Introduction

Introduction
Agriculture accounts up to 40 percent to the total GPD and up to 60
percent to export revenue a...
Introduction

Introduction
Among the ICTs, radio is one the fastest for communicating
agricultural information. It has bee...
Theoretical framework and methods

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

Let den...
Theoretical framework and methods

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

How do ...
Theoretical framework and methods

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

Average Treatmnet Effect (ATE )

Individual leve...
Theoretical framework and methods

Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model

Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE )
To consid...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Data
The data set for this analysis is extracted from the rice statistics
survey fo...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics by adoption status
No
Quantitative va...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive Statistics by listening status
No
Quantitative v...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters

Alia D., Na...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters
The percenta...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters
The percenta...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters
The percenta...
Data and descriptive statistics

Data

Descriptive Statistics
On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters
The percenta...
Results and discussion

Impact of media use on improved variety adoption

Impact of media use on improved variety adoption...
Results and discussion

Impact of media use on improved variety adoption

Marginal Treatment Effect

Alia D., Nakelse T., D...
Results and discussion

Impact of media use on rice productivity

Impact of media use on rice productivity
The graph shows...
Results and discussion

Impact of media use on rice productivity

Local Average Treatment Effect

Alia D., Nakelse T., Diag...
Results and discussion

Impact of media use on rice productivity

Impact of media use on rice productivity
The total gross...
Results and discussion

Conclusion

Conclusion
We use household-level survey data and apply the Rubin Causal
Model that ha...
Results and discussion

Conclusion

Thank you !

Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechno...
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Th5_Rural media, agricultural technology adoption and productivity: Evidence from smallholder rice farmers in Burkina Faso

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3rd Africa Rice Congress
Theme 5: Innovation systems and ICT tools for rice value chain
Mini symposium 1: Rice knowledge management using traditional media
Author: Nakelse

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Th5_Rural media, agricultural technology adoption and productivity: Evidence from smallholder rice farmers in Burkina Faso

  1. 1. Rural media, agricultural technology adoption and productivity: Evidence from smallholder rice farmers in Burkina Faso Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo M., Guissou R. Presenter :Tebila, Nakelse Africa Rice Congress, 2013 Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice) October, 2013 Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 1 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  2. 2. Introduction Introduction Agriculture accounts up to 40 percent to the total GPD and up to 60 percent to export revenue and remains a major source of income Productivity increase rely mainly on area expansion which is getting because of The demographic pressure due to population and urbanization Climate change Thus, raising productivity through adoption of improved varieties along with best crop management practices and mechanization could be a sustainable option However, the diffusion and the adoption of most of these technologies are still incomplete and even low in Africa (Abdulai and Huffman, 2007) Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 2 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  3. 3. Introduction Introduction Among the ICTs, radio is one the fastest for communicating agricultural information. It has been used as extension tool since several years (Bereh, 2002). Radio have been quite successful in spreading agricultural information in several countries such as Brazil and Cote d’Ivoire (Dimelu and Anyawu, 2004 ; Wele 1991) This paper proposes to contribute to the growing literature and empirically examines the effect of ICT use on the adoption of improved rice varieties and productivity Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 3 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  4. 4. Theoretical framework and methods Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model Let denote decision variable by D and by D = 1 if the farmer adopt and D = 0 if he do not adopt with following selection rule (See Heckman , 2010 ; Heckman et al 2006 ) : D = 1(µD (Z ) > V ) µD (Z ) = Utility gain with adoption V a random scalar variable with cumulative distribution function FV Farmer also faces two hypothetical or potential outcomes Y1 = µ1 (X ) + U1 under adoption Y0 = µ0 (X ) + U0 without adoption with X a subset of observed covariates and UD an error term. Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 4 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  5. 5. Theoretical framework and methods Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model How do Radio rice programs listening (W ) affect adoption ? First rural media affects adoption and hence the outcome by modifying the information set of the decision maker Second, it could also increase the knowledge of an adopting or even a non-adopting farmer about how to correctly use an existing improved rice variety which has a complex input use requirement. Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 5 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  6. 6. Theoretical framework and methods Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model Average Treatmnet Effect (ATE ) Individual level effect of adoption on outcome : Y1 − Y0 = β ¯ Population level effect : ATE (x ) = β(x ) = E (Y1 − Y0 |X = x ), ATT and ATU BUT Farmer decision to adopt or not to adopt is likely to be endogenous ; farmer with expected high gain may sort into adoption (Diagne et al, 2012 ; Ravaillon, 2012) Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 6 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  7. 7. Theoretical framework and methods Rural media and the Rubin Causal Model Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE ) To consider the unobserved characteristics effect we use Marginal Treatment Effect (MTE) version of LATE with listening rice radio program (W ) as instrument . MTE (u) = E (Y1 − Y0 |X = x , U = u) LATE (p1 , p0 , X = x ) = p p MTE (u)du/(p1 − p0 ) p1 is the probability of adoption when farmer listened rice radio program(W = 1) p0 is the probability of adoption when farmer not listened rice radio program(W = 0) Thus LATE is the mean effect on outcome (productivity) for farmer who choose to adopt because of listening rice radio program. Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 7 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  8. 8. Data and descriptive statistics Data Data The data set for this analysis is extracted from the rice statistics survey for Burkina Faso collected in 2009-2010 by NARS in collaboration with NASS and AfricaRice Stratification at province level with villages randomly selected in each stratum proportionally to the importance of the stratum and a fixed number of rice farming households selected in each village The size of sample drawn was originally 760 . The number of households effectively surveyed was 650 in Burkina Faso. Thus the final data used have 284 households. Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 8 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  9. 9. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics by adoption status No Quantitative variables Logarithm of Rice yield in 2008 (Kg/Ha) Household size Number of radio receptors Categorical variables Have listened rice programs on radio Have acquired some knowledge Have applied knowledge acquired Gender of Head of household Has secondary Activity Has agriculture as main activity Has at least some primary education Sample size Yes Diff tstata 0.69 9.4 1.88 0.88 9.13 1.52 -0.19 0.28 0.36 -2.4** 0.3 2.0** 0.1 0.02 0.02 0.76 0.13 0.93 0.33 242 0.42 0.4 0.36 0.8 0.06 0.95 0.42 42 -0.33 -0.37 -0.34 -0.04 0.06 -0.02 -0.09 -4.0*** -4.7** -4.3*** -0.5 1.4 -0.5 -1 Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 9 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  10. 10. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics by listening status No Quantitative variables Logarithm of Rice yield in 2008 (Kg/Ha) Household size Number of radio receptors Categorical variables Have listened rice programs on radio Have acquired some knowledge Have applied knowledge acquired Gender of Head of household Has secondary Activity Has agriculture as main activity Has at least some primary education Sample size Yes Diff tstata 0.83 9.45 1.46 0.88 8.7 1.72 -0.05 0.75 -0.26 -0.9 1.2 -2.1** 0.01 0.01 0.77 0.07 0.95 0.34 106 0.91 0.82 0.83 0.08 0.93 0.51 178 -0.9 -0.82 -0.06 -0.01 0.02 -0.16 -15.5*** -14.4*** -1.2 -0.3 0.5 -2.7*** Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 10 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  11. 11. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 11 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  12. 12. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters The percentage of household that have listened rice program on radio is significantly higher in the group of improved varieties adopter Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 11 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  13. 13. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters The percentage of household that have listened rice program on radio is significantly higher in the group of improved varieties adopter Actual adoption rate is significantly higher in the group of farmer that have listened rice program on radio Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 11 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  14. 14. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters The percentage of household that have listened rice program on radio is significantly higher in the group of improved varieties adopter Actual adoption rate is significantly higher in the group of farmer that have listened rice program on radio This might suggest a positive association between having listened rice program on radio and improved varieties adoption Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 11 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  15. 15. Data and descriptive statistics Data Descriptive Statistics On average the yield is 19% higher for adopters The percentage of household that have listened rice program on radio is significantly higher in the group of improved varieties adopter Actual adoption rate is significantly higher in the group of farmer that have listened rice program on radio This might suggest a positive association between having listened rice program on radio and improved varieties adoption In fact there is no significant difference between the yield of farmer that have listened rice program on radio and the farmers that have Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 11 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  16. 16. Results and discussion Impact of media use on improved variety adoption Impact of media use on improved variety adoption The propensity to adopt improved varieties is higher for a farmer that have listen rice program on radio than for a farmer that have never Most of the other control variables have the expected sign but were found to be not significant Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 12 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  17. 17. Results and discussion Impact of media use on improved variety adoption Marginal Treatment Effect Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 13 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  18. 18. Results and discussion Impact of media use on rice productivity Impact of media use on rice productivity The graph shows that the MTE is decreasing in the unobserved utility and consequently in the propensity score This is an evidence of diminishing marginal return with the likelihood of a farmer to adopt a modern variety Farmer with the highest return are more likely to adopt ( low ud ) while those that are less likely to adopt ( high ud ) have a much smaller gross return This arises the fact that farmers almost certainly base their choice to adopt or not adopt on things they know but the analyst does not know This gives rise to what Heckman et al. (2006) call essential heterogeneity Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 14 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  19. 19. Results and discussion Impact of media use on rice productivity Local Average Treatment Effect Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 15 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  20. 20. Results and discussion Impact of media use on rice productivity Impact of media use on rice productivity The total gross return of adoption is positive and relatively high for all potential adoption farmers In the sub-group of farmers who listened rice program the average impact of adoption (the LATE ) is statistically significant and estimated to be an increase of about 39.2% of yield This is the mean effect on yield for farmer who choose to adopt because of listening rice radio program. The LATE for the actual non-adopters is significantly positive which suggests that if the actual non adopter were all exposed to rice programs on radio and come to adopter improved varieties, their yield gain will be positive and much higher than the average yield gain across all adopting farmers Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 16 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  21. 21. Results and discussion Conclusion Conclusion We use household-level survey data and apply the Rubin Causal Model that has emerged as the standard approach for evaluating policy/program effect using observational data. Adoption of modern varieties in 2008 was significantly higher for farmers that had listened to the radio program on rice before 2008 than those who had not Using of rural radio appears to significantly increase the propensity of adopting modern varieties We also estimate that the LATE of adoption of improved varieties induced by listening to the rice radio program on rice yield was significant and positive Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 17 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen
  22. 22. Results and discussion Conclusion Thank you ! Alia D., Nakelse T., Diagne A., Ouedraogo RuralGuissou R. Presentertechnology adoption and Rice Congress, 2013 (Africasmallhold M., media, agricultural :Tebila, Nakelse Africa productivity: Evidence from 18 / 18 October, 2013 Rice Cen

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