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Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
Air Traffic Control
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Air Traffic Control

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for more ppts contact at theprateek@yahoo.in …

for more ppts contact at theprateek@yahoo.in
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Transcript

  • 1. AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA By:- Prateek Agrawal ECE/67/08
  • 2. What is Airport Authority of india ?
    • It is an organisation within the Ministry of Civil Aviation(MOCA).
    • The Airport Authority Of India operate most aspects of the airport (including Air Traffic Control).
    • Owns the 122 airports, among which
    • 11 are international,
    • 82 are domestic &
    • 29 for defence airfield.
  • 3. FUNCTIONS
    • Controls the air traffic.
    • Operation & Maintenance of airports.
    • To also develop and maintain the Cargo terminals.
    • Provision of Communication to guide the pilot.
    • Navigational Aids viz. RADAR
  • 4. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
    • It consists of the following units:-
    • A-SMGCS
    • NAV-AIDS
    • VHF Communication
    • L-BAND RADAR
    • AUTOMATION
  • 5. RADAR
    • ATC Radar Types
    • How It Works?
    • Field Of Application
    • Development
    • Benefits & Disadvantage
    • An Accident Example
    • Future
  • 6. RA dio D etection A nd R anging
    • It uses Electromagnetic waves generally Radio waves.
    • Radar is an object Detection system.
    • It determines the Range , altitude, direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as ships, Aircraft,weather formation.
  • 7. How Radar Works?
    • Radar sets produce radio signals. They radiate (send out) these signals into space with a transmitter.
    • When a radio signal strikes an object such as an airplane, part of the signal is reflected back to the radar antenna. The signal is picked up there as a radar echo. Radar set changes the radar echo into an image that can be seen on a screen. Radar set also gives the direction of the target and its distance from the set.
  • 8. MICROWAVE BANDS Band Frequency Wave Length Description L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long' S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short' X 8–12  GHz 2.5–3.75 cm missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.
  • 9. TYPES OF RADAR
    • Primary Radar
    • Secondary Radar
  • 10. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS
    • Following equipments are used for nav-aids:-
    • NDB: Non Directional Beacon
    • VOR: VHF Omni Range
    • DME: Distance Measuring Equipment
    • ILS: Instrument Landing System
    • Satellite Navigation
  • 11. DME
    • Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of radio signals.
    • DME EQUIPMENT PROVIDE SLANT DISTANCE of the AIRCRAFT from GROUND EQUIPMENT
  • 12. MARKERS
    • Outer Marker
    • The outer marker is normally located 7.2kms away from the runway.
    • They Operate at the carrier frequency of 75khz provided.
  • 13. MARKER
    • Middle Marker
    • Middle Marker is located at 1.1km.
    • This indicates that object is in approach region
  • 14. MARKER
    • Inner Marker
    • It is situated at the distance of about 300m from the departure area.
  • 15. RANGE CALCULATION:
    • The range, in nautical miles, between the aircraft and the transponder is obtained by the simple formula: Range = total time(μsec)-time delay(μsec)/12.36 μsec
    • The denominator 12.36 μsec is the time taken by the pulse to travel 1 nautical mile to and fro. This time is also called Radar Mile.
  • 16.  
  • 17. Multilateration System
    • The Multilateration (MLAT) Subsystem is a secondary surveillance sensor that provides accurate position and identification information on transponder equipped aircraft and surface vehicles.
    • The multilateration subsystem contains the following major components:
    • • Remote Units (RUs)
    • • Reference Transmitters (RefTrans)
    • • Target Processors (TPs)
  • 18. DISPLAY
  • 19. TARGET ICONS
    • A. arrival
    • B. departure
    • C. vehicle
    • D. aircraft
    • E. heavy aircraft
  • 20. Thankyou for your attention...... Presented by- Prateek Agrawal

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