WHAT IS A PAPER BATTERY?A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage andproduction device formed by combining carbon nanotube witha conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper.A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super-capacitor , combining two components that are separate intraditional electronics .
GENERAL Li-ION BATTERY Generally Li-ion re-chargeable batteries are used in mobiles,laptops and most of the electronic devices. 3 primary functional component of Li-ion battery are: 1. -ve electrode(graphite) 2. +ve electrode(cobalt oxide) 3.electrolyte( lithium salt in organic solvent) During discharge and charging, lithium ions Li+ carry the current from the negative to the positive electrode and vice-versa respectively, through the non-aqueous electrolyte .
Disadvantages of Li-Ion• EXPENSIVE -- 40% more than NiCd.• DELICATE -- battery temp must be monitored from within (which raises the price), and sealed particularly well.• REGULATIONS -- when shipping Li-Ion batteries in bulk (which also raises the price). Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material
WHY TO USE PAPER BATTERY? Ultra-thin size & flexible structure. Exhibits property of super-capacitor(22F-36F per gram) Operating temper ature(-75 to 100 degree celsius) provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Cost-effective.
CARBON NANOTUBES Carbon nanotube is the main concept behind paper battery Carbon nanotubes (CNTs; also known as buckytubes) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Allotropes are different structural modifications of an element CNTs exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient thermal conductors. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. The diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers Their name is derived from their long, hollow structure with the walls formed by one-atom-thick sheets of carbon, called graphene. These sheets are rolled at specific and discrete angles, and the combination of the rolling angle and radius decides the nanotube properties
Graphene structure Rolled at angle Spinning Carbon NanotubeCARBON NANOTUBE
CONSTRUCTION OF PAPER BATTERY CNT thin films were coated onto stainless steel (SS) substrates with a solution based process. The concentration of CNT is 1.7 mg/mL. A dried film with a thickness of 2 micrometer was formed after drying the CNT ink on the SS substrate at 80 °C for 5 min.This film is then peeled off from substrate. These films act as electrodes of paper battery. one film is pasted to electrolyte LTO (Li4Ti5O12) and the other film is pasted to electrolyte LCO (LiCoO2). Paper is sandwiched between two electrolytes LTO and LCO with PVDF(poly vinylidene fluoride) acting as glue.
WORKING 1.While a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient. 2.Traditional Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction between electrolyte and metal. 3.paper battery produces electrons due to the interaction of electrolytes LTO & LCO. 4. Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal during discharging. 5. Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to continue.
ADVANTAGES • The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up, folded or cut. •We can get 2.5 volts of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. • "If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, thats 500 times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut power by 50%. So we can control the power and voltage issue." • Because the battery consists mainly of paper and carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within the body where conventional batteries pose a toxic threat.
Paper battery offers future powerThe black piece of paper can power a small light. Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation of gadgets.The ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one day power a car.The paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power storage.