Air Traffic Control


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Air Traffic Control

  1. 1. AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF INDIA By:- Prateek Agrawal ECE/67/08
  2. 2. What is Airport Authority of india ? <ul><li>It is an organisation within the Ministry of Civil Aviation(MOCA). </li></ul><ul><li>The Airport Authority Of India operate most aspects of the airport (including Air Traffic Control). </li></ul><ul><li>Owns the 122 airports, among which </li></ul><ul><li>11 are international, </li></ul><ul><li>82 are domestic & </li></ul><ul><li>29 for defence airfield. </li></ul>
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Controls the air traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Operation & Maintenance of airports. </li></ul><ul><li>To also develop and maintain the Cargo terminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of Communication to guide the pilot. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigational Aids viz. RADAR </li></ul>
  4. 4. AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL <ul><li>It consists of the following units:- </li></ul><ul><li>A-SMGCS </li></ul><ul><li>NAV-AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>VHF Communication </li></ul><ul><li>L-BAND RADAR </li></ul><ul><li>AUTOMATION </li></ul>
  5. 5. RADAR <ul><li>ATC Radar Types </li></ul><ul><li>How It Works? </li></ul><ul><li>Field Of Application </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits & Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>An Accident Example </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul>
  6. 6. RA dio D etection A nd R anging <ul><li>It uses Electromagnetic waves generally Radio waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Radar is an object Detection system. </li></ul><ul><li>It determines the Range , altitude, direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as ships, Aircraft,weather formation. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Radar Works? <ul><li>Radar sets produce radio signals. They radiate (send out) these signals into space with a transmitter. </li></ul><ul><li>When a radio signal strikes an object such as an airplane, part of the signal is reflected back to the radar antenna. The signal is picked up there as a radar echo. Radar set changes the radar echo into an image that can be seen on a screen. Radar set also gives the direction of the target and its distance from the set. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MICROWAVE BANDS Band Frequency Wave Length Description L 1–2 GHz 15–30 cm long range air traffic control and surveillance; 'L' for 'long' S 2–4 GHz 7.5–15 cm terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; 'S' for 'short' X 8–12  GHz 2.5–3.75 cm missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.
  9. 9. TYPES OF RADAR <ul><li>Primary Radar </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Radar </li></ul>
  10. 10. NAVIGATIONAL AIDS <ul><li>Following equipments are used for nav-aids:- </li></ul><ul><li>NDB: Non Directional Beacon </li></ul><ul><li>VOR: VHF Omni Range </li></ul><ul><li>DME: Distance Measuring Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>ILS: Instrument Landing System </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Navigation </li></ul>
  11. 11. DME <ul><li>Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of radio signals. </li></ul><ul><li>DME EQUIPMENT PROVIDE SLANT DISTANCE of the AIRCRAFT from GROUND EQUIPMENT </li></ul>
  12. 12. MARKERS <ul><li>Outer Marker </li></ul><ul><li>The outer marker is normally located 7.2kms away from the runway. </li></ul><ul><li>They Operate at the carrier frequency of 75khz provided. </li></ul>
  13. 13. MARKER <ul><li>Middle Marker </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Marker is located at 1.1km. </li></ul><ul><li>This indicates that object is in approach region </li></ul>
  14. 14. MARKER <ul><li>Inner Marker </li></ul><ul><li>It is situated at the distance of about 300m from the departure area. </li></ul>
  15. 15. RANGE CALCULATION: <ul><li>The range, in nautical miles, between the aircraft and the transponder is obtained by the simple formula: Range = total time(μsec)-time delay(μsec)/12.36 μsec </li></ul><ul><li>The denominator 12.36 μsec is the time taken by the pulse to travel 1 nautical mile to and fro. This time is also called Radar Mile. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Multilateration System <ul><li>The Multilateration (MLAT) Subsystem is a secondary surveillance sensor that provides accurate position and identification information on transponder equipped aircraft and surface vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>The multilateration subsystem contains the following major components: </li></ul><ul><li>• Remote Units (RUs) </li></ul><ul><li>• Reference Transmitters (RefTrans) </li></ul><ul><li>• Target Processors (TPs) </li></ul>
  17. 18. DISPLAY
  18. 19. TARGET ICONS <ul><li>A. arrival </li></ul><ul><li>B. departure </li></ul><ul><li>C. vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>D. aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>E. heavy aircraft </li></ul>
  19. 20. Thankyou for your attention...... Presented by- Prateek Agrawal