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  • Frequently, presenters must deliver material of a technical nature to an audience unfamiliar with the topic or vocabulary. The material may be complex or heavy with detail. To present technical material effectively, use the following guidelines from Dale Carnegie Training®.   Consider the amount of time available and prepare to organize your material. Narrow your topic. Divide your presentation into clear segments. Follow a logical progression. Maintain your focus throughout. Close the presentation with a summary, repetition of the key steps, or a logical conclusion.   Keep your audience in mind at all times. For example, be sure data is clear and information is relevant. Keep the level of detail and vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Use visuals to support key points or steps. Keep alert to the needs of your listeners, and you will have a more receptive audience.
  • ATC

    1. 1. Air Traffic Control (ATC) A brief synopsis. Tyler Vann Copyright 1996-2001 © Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc.
    2. 2. Opening <ul><li>Worried that this could be you on your next flight? </li></ul><ul><li>Air Traffic Control’s job is to prevent incidents like this. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Flight Rules, IFR/VFR </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Separation/Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
    4. 4. Flight Rules IFR <ul><li>IFR Stands for Instrument Flight Rules </li></ul><ul><li>All Commercial and most military aircraft fly under IFR conditions </li></ul><ul><li>IFR aircraft MUST talk to Air Traffic Control </li></ul><ul><li>ATC instructions for IFR Aircraft are MANDATORY </li></ul><ul><li>Can fly in fair or poor weather </li></ul>
    5. 5. Flight Rules VFR <ul><li>VFR stands for Visual Flight Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Operate on a See and Avoid principle </li></ul><ul><li>Most ATC instructions are advisory in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Can fly in fair weather only, must remain clear of clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Small privately owned aircraft are often VFR </li></ul><ul><li>Not generally required to talk to ATC </li></ul>
    6. 6. Duty Priority <ul><li>The primary job of ATC is to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide safety alerts </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Separation of Aircraft <ul><li>Aircraft are separated (or kept apart) in a variety of ways depending on these phases of flight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrival and Departure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascent and Descent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>En route </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Tower Control <ul><li>The Air Traffic Control tower is responsible for aircraft at the airport. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival and Departure separation is provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, only one aircraft can be on the runway at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The tower will clear aircraft to land or takeoff if the runway is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Talks to both IFR and VFR aircraft </li></ul>
    9. 9. Approach Control <ul><li>Provides separation using RADAR. </li></ul><ul><li>Will keep aircraft at least 1000 feet vertically separated or a minimum of 3 miles laterally. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequences arrivals into an airport. </li></ul><ul><li>Climbs departures to requested altitude ensuring separation from other arrivals and overflight traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>IFR aircraft are required to </li></ul><ul><li>talk to Approach, VFR are not </li></ul>
    10. 10. En Route Center (ARTCC) <ul><li>Provides 2000 feet of vertical separation or 5 miles of lateral separation </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors aircraft flight using mosaic RADAR over a very large area </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for high altitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Has an overall “picture” of traffic situation </li></ul><ul><li>Issues restrictions if airports become congested </li></ul><ul><li>IFR are required to talk to </li></ul><ul><li>a center, VFR are not </li></ul>
    11. 11. Safety Alerts <ul><li>#2 Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Issued for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground/Terrain proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converging aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obstacles such as large buildings or antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed abnormal conditions. Such as, erratic flight, rapid descent, etc… </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Operational Priority <ul><li>ATC services are provided on a “First come first served basis.” </li></ul><ul><li>There are many exceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrivals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Departures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-flights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generally IFR have precedence over VFR </li></ul>
    13. 13. Special Operational Priorities <ul><li>An aircraft in distress (Emergency) has priority over ALL other aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Then Air ambulance flights/medivacs </li></ul><ul><li>Next Search and Rescue (SAR) aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>Then Presidential aircraft (Air Force 1) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Emergencies <ul><li>ATC assists pilots to the maximum extent possible during an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>ATC gathers the following information and passes it to emergency services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot’s intentions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Souls on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any ordinance (Primarily military) on board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining fuel </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Emergencies Cont. <ul><li>ATC can assists emergency aircraft by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearing all airspace around and in front of aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring the Runway is available immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerting emergency services of inbound aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vectoring aircraft to airport or around populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tower personnel can look for damage as the aircraft flies by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directing aircraft to an airport that can assist with their emergency </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Close <ul><li>IFR and VFR are types of ratings that determine what services pilots are provided. </li></ul><ul><li>ATC keeps planes from hitting each other and the ground </li></ul><ul><li>ATC services are provided on a “First Come First Served” basis </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies are assisted by air traffic controllers </li></ul>
    17. 17. Why ATC is there <ul><li>Air Traffic Control is there to make air travel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More enjoyable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However….. </li></ul>
    18. 18. In the end, there is only so much ATC can do…
    19. 19. Questions??
    20. 20. References <ul><li>FAAO 7110.65 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>6 Years of military ATC experience </li></ul><ul><li>Click for interesting real audio from the biggest fly-in in the world. </li></ul>