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  • 1. The Battle Over Reconstruction
  • 2. A Growing Conflict  Andrew Johnson  Proposed lenient plan of Reconstruction  Put plan into effect himself, did not consult w/ legislators
  • 3. 13th Amendment  January 1865  Congress approved amendment to abolish slavery throughout the nation  Banned slavery & forced labor  Congress had power to make laws to enforce its terms
  • 4. Johnson’s Plan  Amnesty offered  Southern states could organize new gov’t & elect reps. for Congress  Had to abolish slavery & ratify the 13th Amendment  December 1865  Most states met Johnson’s requirements  Senators elected included many former Confederate leaders  Congress rejected plan  1st: refused to seat southern senators & reps.  2nd: two houses appointed a committee to form a new plan for the South  Heard testimony about black codes: new laws used by southern states to control African Americans
  • 5.  Black Codes  Replaced slavery w/ near slavery  Caused hard line in Congress  Radical Republicans  Wanted to prevent former Confederates from regaining control over southern politics  To protect the freedmen & guarantee them a right to vote
  • 6. Civil Rights Act of 1866  Granted citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteed the civil rights of all people except Native Americans  Vetoed by Johnson & another bill extending the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau  Congress voted to overturn vetoes, & both received 2/3 vote of each house & became law
  • 7. 14th Amendment  All people born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens  States may not pass laws that take away a citizen’s rights; cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law, or deny equal protection of the laws.  Any state that denies the vote to any male citizen over the age of 21, will have representation in Congress reduced (not enforced until 1970s)  Became powerful tool for enforcing civil rights
  • 8. Radical Reconstruction  1866 election  Rioters & police killed many African Americans in southern cities  Led Congress to push for a stricter form of Reconstruction
  • 9. Radicals In Charge  Radical Republicans  Won support to begin strict reconstruction  Reconstruction Act of 1867  Removed gov’t of all southern states that did not ratify 14th Amendment  Imposed military rule & divided states into five military districts  Before returning to Union, each state had to write new state constitution & ratify 14th Amendment  Also had to let African Americans vote
  • 10. Time of Hope and Advancement  African Americans  Were elected as sheriffs, mayors  18 served in Congress  Radical Reconstruction  Southern states opened public schools, legislators spread tax money more evenly, & made fairer voting rules, gave property rights to women, states rebuilt bridges, roads & buildings  Republican Party built a strong following from 3 groups  Scalawags: southern whites who had opposed secession  Freedmen voters  Carpetbaggers: name given by southerners to northern whites who went south to start businesses or pursue political office
  • 11. 15th Amendment  Approved in 1869  Barred all states from denying African American males the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude  Did not prevent states from requiring voters to own property or pay a voting tax
  • 12. Ku Klux Klan  Secret societies created by white shut out of power to terrorize African Americans & their white allies  Would threaten African American voters, burn crosses in their yard  When threats failed they would: whip, torture, shoot, or hang African Americans & white Republicans  Congress responded to violence w/ new laws  Ku Klux Klan Acts of 1870 & 1871  Barred use of force against voeters