Chapter 6<br />Ancient China<br />
Section 1<br />Geography Shapes Ancient China<br />
Geographic Features of China<br />Civilization centered around two rivers which brought water and silt<br />Made farming p...
Two River Systems<br />Chang Jiang a.k.a. Yangtze Rivers<br />Central China<br />Huang He (or Yellow River)<br />North Chi...
A Varied Climate<br />Had varied climate<br />Western China: dry, mostly deserts & mts.; sparsely populated & usable farml...
The Shang Dynasty<br />Shang Kings<br />1766 B.C. Shang family began to control some cities<br />Set-up dynasty (a family ...
Shang Families<br />Respect for parents & ancestors was important<br />Close tie to religion<br />Spirits of ancestors cou...
Developing Language<br />Kings claimed to be able to influence gods<br />Received messages through oracle bones<br />Anima...
The Zhou Dynasty<br />Zhou moved down from the northwest<br />Clashed w/ Shang<br />1027 B.C.<br />Wu Wang led forces & de...
The Zhou & the Dynastic Cycle<br />New dynasty est.<br />Dynasties rose & fell in a pattern<br />Dynastic Cycle<br />Troub...
Zhou Government<br />Central gov’t was weak<br />People w/ family ties or other trusted people were in charge<br />Local r...
The Time of the Warring States<br />Invasion was a constant theme<br />800 B.C.<br />Nomads from the north & west invaded<...
Section 2<br />China’s Ancient Philosophies<br />
Intro<br />During Time of Warring States Chinese society experienced much disorder<br />Kings & Warlords fought over land,...
Legalism<br />Belief that a powerful, efficient gov’t and a strict legal system are the keys to social order<br />Feared d...
Strict Laws & Harsh Punishments<br />Legalists believed human nature was wicked<br />People do good only when forced to<br...
An Increase in Government Control<br />Legalists believed rulers should reward those who carried out their duties well<br ...
Confucianism<br />Confucius<br />Lived from 551-479 B.C. during time of unrest in China<br />Wanted to restore order<br />...
The Five Relationships<br />Code of proper conduct/behavior for people<br />5 basic relationships in Confucianism each wit...
Proper Conduct<br />Confucius<br />Good conduct & respect began at home<br />Husband good to wives, wives obeyed husbands,...
The Impact of Confucianism<br />Chinese found ways to avoid conflict and live peacefully<br />Many rulers tried to live up...
Daoism<br />Laozi<br />500s B.C.<br />Book of his teachings was Daodejing<br />The Way<br />Believed a universal force cal...
Following the Way<br />Daoists<br />Didn’t  not argue about good and bad & didn’t try to change things<br />Accepted thing...
Section 3<br />The Qin & the Han<br />
The Qin Unified China<br />New rulers of China<br />New Emperor: Shi Huangdi<br />Unified & expanded China<br />
A Legalistic Ruler<br />221 B.C.<br />Shi Huangdi began to end internal battles between warring states<br />Believed in le...
Uniting China<br />Huangdi wanted strong central gov’t<br />To gain control<br />Tried to weaken China’s noble families<br...
The Great Wall<br />Wall along northern boarder to keep out nomadic invaders<br />Great Wall linked together other walls b...
The Qin Dynasty Ends<br />210 B.C.<br />Shi Huangdi died<br />Buried in an elaborate tomb guarded by army of clay soldiers...
The Han Dynasty<br />Shi Huangi’s son was not an effective ruler<br />Rebellion & civil war broke out<br />Military leader...
Han Government<br />Liu Bang kept Qin policies of strong central gov’t, but lowered taxes<br />Made punishments less harsh...
Empress Rules<br />195 B.C. Liu Bang died<br />Wife Empress Lu ruled for their young son<br />Actually outlived her son & ...
Expanding & Unifying the Empire<br />141 – 87 B.C.<br />Wudi ruled China (descendant of Liu Bang)<br />Called Martial Empe...
Life in Han China<br />Han were industrious people whose civilization prospered for many decades<br />Daily Life in Han Ch...
City living<br />Cities were centers of trade, education, and gov’t<br />Merchants, craftspeople, & gov’t officials lived ...
Section 4<br />The Legacy of Ancient China<br />
The Silk Road<br />Han Dynasty<br />Only Chinese knew how to make silk<br />it was important in opening trading routes to ...
A Trans-Eurasian Link<br />Silk Road: overland trade route<br />Traders carried silk & other goods on caravan trails<br />...
Cultural Diffusion<br />Ideas & cultural customs also moved on the Silk Roads<br />Known as cultural diffusion<br />Can oc...
The Spread of Buddhism<br />Buddhist missionaries entered China during Han Dynasty<br />Few followers at first<br />After ...
Influential Ideas & Beliefs<br />Philosophies continued to influence China & the world<br />Standards of Confucianism rema...
Chinese Inventions & Discoveries<br />Population of China was growing<br />Farming was the most important & honored profes...
Paper<br />A.D. 105<br />Paper was invented<br />Made from mixture of old rags, mulberry tree bark, & fibers from the hemp...
Silk<br />Allowed Chinese to get silver and gold from lands to the west<br />Was important because China did not have rich...
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Chapter 6 blog notes

  1. 1. Chapter 6<br />Ancient China<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Geography Shapes Ancient China<br />
  3. 3. Geographic Features of China<br />Civilization centered around two rivers which brought water and silt<br />Made farming possible<br />Isolated by Barriers<br />Water barriers: Yellow Sea, East China Sea, & Pacific Ocean<br />Desert barriers: Gobi Desert & Taklimakan Desert<br />Mts.: Pamir, Tian Shan, & Himalaya mts.<br />Geographically isolated<br />Made spread of ideas & goods difficult<br />Few outside influences<br />
  4. 4. Two River Systems<br />Chang Jiang a.k.a. Yangtze Rivers<br />Central China<br />Huang He (or Yellow River)<br />North China<br />Ancient farming<br />Done between Chang Jiang & Huang He<br />Silt made fertile soil<br />Center of Chinese civilization<br />
  5. 5. A Varied Climate<br />Had varied climate<br />Western China: dry, mostly deserts & mts.; sparsely populated & usable farmland<br />Northeast China: cold winters & warm summers<br />Southeast China: mild winters & hot, rainy summers<br />Climate variety lead to variety of crops produced<br />Rice, wheat, soybeans, & millet<br />
  6. 6. The Shang Dynasty<br />Shang Kings<br />1766 B.C. Shang family began to control some cities<br />Set-up dynasty (a family or group that rules for several generations)<br />Kings: responsible for religious activities<br />Ruled w/ god’s permission<br />Ruled central North China Plain<br />Used chariots to defend themselves against nomads<br />
  7. 7. Shang Families<br />Respect for parents & ancestors was important<br />Close tie to religion<br />Spirits of ancestors could bring good fortune<br />Animals were sacrificed<br />Men ruled within the family<br />
  8. 8. Developing Language<br />Kings claimed to be able to influence gods<br />Received messages through oracle bones<br />Animal bones that were scratched to question the gods (became early form of writing)<br />Developed pictographs<br />Used huge # of symbols<br />Could read Chinese w/o being able to speak it<br />Helped to unify a large varied land<br />
  9. 9. The Zhou Dynasty<br />Zhou moved down from the northwest<br />Clashed w/ Shang<br />1027 B.C.<br />Wu Wang led forces & defeated Shang<br />Adopted many Shang ways<br />New ideas also introduced<br />
  10. 10. The Zhou & the Dynastic Cycle<br />New dynasty est.<br />Dynasties rose & fell in a pattern<br />Dynastic Cycle<br />Trouble resulted from rulers losing heaven’s favor<br />Claimed last Shang ruler was bad & god took away Shang right to rule & gave it to Zhou<br />Mandate of Heaven<br />Bad or foolish ruler = approval of the gods would be taken away<br />Examples: uprisings, invasions, floods, or earthquakes<br />
  11. 11. Zhou Government<br />Central gov’t was weak<br />People w/ family ties or other trusted people were in charge<br />Local rulers (lords) owed loyalty & military service to king<br />King promised in return to protect their lands<br />Lords became more powerful as cities grew<br />More group under their power<br />Less dependent on king<br />Lords began to fight with each other & other peoples<br />Added lands expanded Chinese territory<br />
  12. 12. The Time of the Warring States<br />Invasion was a constant theme<br />800 B.C.<br />Nomads from the north & west invaded<br />771 B.C.<br />Invaders destroyed capital city of Hao & king was killed<br />Kings were weak<br />Lords fought constantly<br />As their power grew they claimed to be kings of their own territories (Time of the Warring States)<br />
  13. 13. Section 2<br />China’s Ancient Philosophies<br />
  14. 14. Intro<br />During Time of Warring States Chinese society experienced much disorder<br />Kings & Warlords fought over land, while scholars wondered what it would take to bring peace<br />3 ways of thinking developed<br />Legalism<br />Confucianism<br />Daoism<br />
  15. 15. Legalism<br />Belief that a powerful, efficient gov’t and a strict legal system are the keys to social order<br />Feared disorder<br />Strong gov’t & strict laws would restore order<br />
  16. 16. Strict Laws & Harsh Punishments<br />Legalists believed human nature was wicked<br />People do good only when forced to<br />Gov’t should pass strict laws to control behavior in people<br />Needed to make people afraid to do wrong<br />
  17. 17. An Increase in Government Control<br />Legalists believed rulers should reward those who carried out their duties well<br />Punishment was, however, stressed more than rewards<br />Shang Yang (Legalist)<br />Wanted people to report lawbreakers<br />Those who didn’t should be executed<br />Legalists<br />Did not want people ? or complain about the gov’t<br />Arrested those that did<br />Burned books that contained different philosophies or ideas<br />
  18. 18. Confucianism<br />Confucius<br />Lived from 551-479 B.C. during time of unrest in China<br />Wanted to restore order<br />Believed more in peace to end conflict<br />Respect for others was absolutely necessary for peace and order<br />Gov’t leaders should set good example for people to see<br />Ideas were collected in a book called the Analects<br />Became belief system of Confucianism<br />
  19. 19. The Five Relationships<br />Code of proper conduct/behavior for people<br />5 basic relationships in Confucianism each with its own duties and its own code<br />Father and son<br />Elder brother and younger brother<br />Husband and wife<br />Friend and friend<br />Ruler and subject<br />*Two basic categories: proper conduct in the family & proper conduct in society<br />
  20. 20. Proper Conduct<br />Confucius<br />Good conduct & respect began at home<br />Husband good to wives, wives obeyed husbands, brothers kind to brothers, younger had to follow wishes of older<br />Most important teaching<br />Filial piety: treating parents w/ respect<br />Behavior in society<br />Authority should be respected<br />Ruler was to live correctly & respect subjects<br />Subjects should obey if they did<br />Peace in society would come if followed<br />
  21. 21. The Impact of Confucianism<br />Chinese found ways to avoid conflict and live peacefully<br />Many rulers tried to live up to Confucius’s model for a good ruler<br />Groundwork was laid for fair and skilled gov’t officials<br />
  22. 22. Daoism<br />Laozi<br />500s B.C.<br />Book of his teachings was Daodejing<br />The Way<br />Believed a universal force called the Dao (or Way) guides things<br />All creatures, except humans, live in harmony w/ this force<br />Humans argue about right and wrong (arguments are pointless)<br />To relate to nature humans had to find individual was to follow<br />Each should learn to live in harmony w/ nature & their inner feelings<br />Natural order was more important than social order<br />Social order would follow if everyone learned to live in their own individual harmony<br />
  23. 23. Following the Way<br />Daoists<br />Didn’t not argue about good and bad & didn’t try to change things<br />Accepted things as they were<br />Didn’t want to be involved with gov’t<br />Thought gov’t should leave people alone<br />Yin and Yang<br />Two things that interact w/ each other and represent the natural rhythms of life<br />Yin (black): all that is cold, dark, & mysterious<br />Yang (white): all that is warm, bright, and light<br />Forces complement each other; forces always change and evolve<br />Helps people understand how they fit into the world<br />Daoists pursued scientific studies<br />Astronomy & medicine<br />
  24. 24. Section 3<br />The Qin & the Han<br />
  25. 25. The Qin Unified China<br />New rulers of China<br />New Emperor: Shi Huangdi<br />Unified & expanded China<br />
  26. 26. A Legalistic Ruler<br />221 B.C.<br />Shi Huangdi began to end internal battles between warring states<br />Believed in legalism (killed 460 critics & Confucianists)<br />Also burned books w/ ideas he disliked<br />
  27. 27. Uniting China<br />Huangdi wanted strong central gov’t<br />To gain control<br />Tried to weaken China’s noble families<br />Took their land & forced them to live at the capital<br />This strengthened emperor’s power<br />Linked lands together<br />Built highways & irrigation projects<br />Forced peasants to work & set taxes high to pay for projects<br />Set gov’t standards for weights, measures, coins, & writing<br />Made business easier everywhere in China<br />
  28. 28. The Great Wall<br />Wall along northern boarder to keep out nomadic invaders<br />Great Wall linked together other walls built during Warring States period<br />Peasants & criminals were forced to build the wall<br />Many died from hard labor<br />Great resentment among people<br />
  29. 29. The Qin Dynasty Ends<br />210 B.C.<br />Shi Huangdi died<br />Buried in an elaborate tomb guarded by army of clay soldiers<br />
  30. 30. The Han Dynasty<br />Shi Huangi’s son was not an effective ruler<br />Rebellion & civil war broke out<br />Military leader Liu Bang ended civil war & reunited China (started Han Dynasty)<br />
  31. 31. Han Government<br />Liu Bang kept Qin policies of strong central gov’t, but lowered taxes<br />Made punishments less harsh<br />Peasants owed 1 month labor on emperor’s public projects<br />Built roads, canals, & irrigation projects<br />Bureaucracy was set up<br />System of departments to carry out the work of the gov’t<br />Officials chosen by ruler ran offices<br />Helped enforce emperor’s rule<br />Han put family members & trusted people in local gov’t<br />Later skills of people determined appointment<br />Set up system to find most educated & ethical people<br />Tested people on their knowledge of Confucianism<br />
  32. 32. Empress Rules<br />195 B.C. Liu Bang died<br />Wife Empress Lu ruled for their young son<br />Actually outlived her son & continued to place infants on the throne (allowed her to retain power because infants were too young to rule)<br />When she died those loyal to Liu Bang executed every member of Empress Lu’s family<br />
  33. 33. Expanding & Unifying the Empire<br />141 – 87 B.C.<br />Wudi ruled China (descendant of Liu Bang)<br />Called Martial Emperor because he used war to expand China<br />Brought southern Chinese provinces, northern Vietnam, & northern Korea under his control<br />Chased nomadic invaders out of northern China<br />To unify:<br />Encouraged conquered people to assimilated (adopt China’s culture)<br />Chinese farmers sent out to settle newly colonized areas<br />Encouraged to marry conquered people to spread Chinese culture<br />Schools were set up to teach about Confucianism<br />Appointed local scholars to gov’t offices<br />Han faced rebellions, peasant revolts, floods, famine, & economic disasters but strong gov’t & unified population helped them stay in power<br />
  34. 34. Life in Han China<br />Han were industrious people whose civilization prospered for many decades<br />Daily Life in Han China<br />Most worked on farms<br />Farmers lived in villages near the land they worked<br />Lived in 1-2 story houses<br />Rich farmers had ox to pull plow, but poor had to pull plow themselves<br />Farmers had a few simple tools to make farming easier<br />They wore simple clothing & sandals<br />Grew wheat & millet in the north & rice in the south<br />Vegetable gardens were kept for additional food<br />Fish and meat were available, but expensive<br />
  35. 35. City living<br />Cities were centers of trade, education, and gov’t<br />Merchants, craftspeople, & gov’t officials lived here<br />Cities were crowded & had many kinds of entertainment<br />Musicians, jugglers, & acrobats<br />Also had street gangs<br />
  36. 36. Section 4<br />The Legacy of Ancient China<br />
  37. 37. The Silk Road<br />Han Dynasty<br />Only Chinese knew how to make silk<br />it was important in opening trading routes to the west<br />
  38. 38. A Trans-Eurasian Link<br />Silk Road: overland trade route<br />Traders carried silk & other goods on caravan trails<br />From China-Asia-Mesopotamia-Europe<br />Called trans-Eurasian because they stretched across two continents<br />100 B.C<br />Silk Roads were well est.<br />Traders made fortunes carrying goods<br />Trips could take several years<br />Cities along the road provided food, water, shelter & goods for trade<br />Goods traded: silk, paper, jade, pottery, sesame seeds, oil, metals, precious stones, & horses<br />
  39. 39. Cultural Diffusion<br />Ideas & cultural customs also moved on the Silk Roads<br />Known as cultural diffusion<br />Can occur whenever one group of people comes in contact w/ another group of people<br />New goods, ideas, & customs began to enter China<br />i.e. military techniques, Buddhist teachings, western cultural style<br />Chinese art, silks, & pottery influenced the west<br />
  40. 40. The Spread of Buddhism<br />Buddhist missionaries entered China during Han Dynasty<br />Few followers at first<br />After fall of Han Dynasty China suffered<br />The Buddhist promise of escape from suffering attracted many Chinese<br />Buddhism was modified by Chinese to better fit w/ their own traditions<br />
  41. 41. Influential Ideas & Beliefs<br />Philosophies continued to influence China & the world<br />Standards of Confucianism remained significant in Chinese gov’t & education<br />Spread to Japan, Korea, & Vietnam<br />Daoism had lasting influence in China<br />Became religion w/ priests, rituals, & volumes of writings<br />Remained primarily a Chinese belief system<br />
  42. 42. Chinese Inventions & Discoveries<br />Population of China was growing<br />Farming was the most important & honored profession<br />Agricultural Improvements<br />Perfected a two blade plow<br />Better iron farm tools<br />Both helped increase crop production<br />Collar harness for horses<br />Horses could pull heavier loads<br />Wheelbarrow<br />Water mills<br />
  43. 43. Paper<br />A.D. 105<br />Paper was invented<br />Made from mixture of old rags, mulberry tree bark, & fibers from the hemp plant<br />Inexpensive paper made book more available<br />Paper also affected the gov’t<br />Now gov’t documents were not recorded on wood, but paper; more convenient<br />
  44. 44. Silk<br />Allowed Chinese to get silver and gold from lands to the west<br />Was important because China did not have rich deposits of either mineral<br />

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