Chapter 11<br />Pacific South America<br />
Section 1<br />Physical Geography<br />
Physical Features<br />Stretch along Pacific Ocean from the equator to almost the Arctic Circle<br />All countries have hi...
Mountains<br />Andes run through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile<br />Some rise more than 20,000 feet<br />Earthquakes & v...
Water & Islands<br />Andean glaciers<br />Source of tributaries of Amazon River<br />Few major rivers<br />Water has no ou...
Climate & Vegetation<br />Vary widely<br />Mostly effected by elevation<br />5 climate zones in the Andes<br />1st Zone<br...
Deserts<br />Atacama Desert<br />600 miles long<br />Rain falls less than five time a century<br />Fog & low clouds are co...
El Nino<br />An ocean and weather patter that affects the Pacific coast<br />Every 2-7 years<br />Cool Pacific water near ...
Natural Resources<br />Valuable natural resources<br />Forests: provide lumber<br />Coastal waters: rich in fish<br />Valu...
History & Culture<br />Section 2<br />
Early Cultures<br />900 B.C.<br />Peru’s f1st advanced civilization<br />Built stone terraces into mts. to raise crops<br ...
The Inca Empire<br />Controlled an area that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile<br />Home to 12 million peop...
Spanish Rule<br />Spanish captured new Inca ruler on his way to be crowned king<br />Demanded enough gold & silver to fill...
Independence<br />Early 1800s<br />Revolts began against Spanish rule<br />Creoles (American-born descendants of Europeans...
Culture<br />Spanish & native cultures have left their mark<br />Most speak Spanish<br />Many maintain native culture<br /...
Section 3<br />Pacific South America Today<br />
Ecuador Today<br />Faced recent instability<br />Widespread poverty (factor that threatens stable gov’t)<br />Government<b...
Economic Regions<br />3 economic regions<br />Coastal lowlands: agriculture & industry<br />Andean region: poorer; capital...
Bolivia Today<br />Poor country & political unrest recently<br />Government<br />Democracy now after years of military rul...
Economy<br />Poorest country in South America<br />Few roads & little investment money in eastern Bolivia<br />Foreign aid...
Peru Today<br />Largest & most populous<br />Making progress against political violence & poverty<br />Lima<br />Capital o...
Government<br />1980s & 1990s<br />Terrorist group Shining Path carried out deadly attacks because it opposed the gov’t po...
Resources<br />Key factors in economic progress<br />Mineral deposits near coast<br />Hydroelectric projects provide energ...
Chile Today<br />Has ended long violent period<br />Stable gov’t & growing economy<br />Government<br />1970: president w/...
Resources & Economy<br />Economy is strongest in region<br />Poverty rates have decreased<br />Small businesses & factorie...
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Chapter 11 blog notes

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Chapter 11 blog notes

  1. 1. Chapter 11<br />Pacific South America<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />Physical Geography<br />
  3. 3. Physical Features<br />Stretch along Pacific Ocean from the equator to almost the Arctic Circle<br />All countries have high Andes mountains<br />
  4. 4. Mountains<br />Andes run through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & Chile<br />Some rise more than 20,000 feet<br />Earthquakes & volcanoes are constant (two tectonic plates meet in region)<br />Some earthquakes cause glaciers to send ice & mud rushing down mts.<br />Landscapes differ from north to south<br />Rugged peaks to rounded peaks<br />In the north Andes split into two ranges<br />Peru & Bolivia ridges are far apart<br />altiplano: broad, high plateau lies between the ridges<br />
  5. 5. Water & Islands<br />Andean glaciers<br />Source of tributaries of Amazon River<br />Few major rivers<br />Water has no outlet to the sea<br />Forms two large lakes<br />Lake Titicaca: highest lake in the world<br />Strait of Magellan<br />Links Atlantic & Pacific Oceans<br />Tierra del Fuego<br />Large island south of the strait<br />Chile & Ecuador control large islands in Pacific<br />Galapagos Islands have wildlife not found anywhere else in the world<br />
  6. 6. Climate & Vegetation<br />Vary widely<br />Mostly effected by elevation<br />5 climate zones in the Andes<br />1st Zone<br />Hot & humid near sea level; sugarcane & bananas<br />Humid tropical: part of Amazon basin; thick rain forests<br />2nd Zone<br />Cooler air; moist climates w/ mt. forests; coffee; largest cities<br />3rd Zone<br />Cooler zone w/ forests & grasslands; potatoes & wheat are grown<br />4th Zone<br />Above the tree line; alpine meadows w/ grasslands & hardy shrubs<br />5th Zone<br />Highest elevation; very cold; no vegetation; ground almost always covered w/ snow & ice<br />
  7. 7. Deserts<br />Atacama Desert<br />600 miles long<br />Rain falls less than five time a century<br />Fog & low clouds are common<br />Some rivers bring snowmelt to dry coastal region<br />Sometimes only appear certain times of the year<br />
  8. 8. El Nino<br />An ocean and weather patter that affects the Pacific coast<br />Every 2-7 years<br />Cool Pacific water near the coast warms<br />May cause extreme ocean & weather events that can have global effects<br />Warm water cause fish to leave<br />Affects fishers<br />Heavy rains<br />flooding<br />
  9. 9. Natural Resources<br />Valuable natural resources<br />Forests: provide lumber<br />Coastal waters: rich in fish<br />Valuable oil & minerals<br />Tin, gold, silver, lead, zinc, & copper<br />Do not have much good land for farming<br />Difficult to produce large crops for export<br />
  10. 10. History & Culture<br />Section 2<br />
  11. 11. Early Cultures<br />900 B.C.<br />Peru’s f1st advanced civilization<br />Built stone terraces into mts. to raise crops<br />In coastal areas they created irrigation systems to store water & control flooding<br />Agriculture<br />Supported large populations, towns, & culture<br />Tiahuanaco<br />Made huge stone carvings <br />Nazca Lines<br />Scratched outlines of animals & other shapes into surface of Peruvian desert<br />
  12. 12. The Inca Empire<br />Controlled an area that stretched from northern Ecuador to central Chile<br />Home to 12 million people<br />Empire was highly organized<br />Irrigation projects turned deserts into farmland<br />Stone-paved roads connected empire<br />Rope suspension bridges used to cross steep valleys<br />No wheeled vehicles or horses<br />Relay teams of runners carried messages (up to 150 miles in one day)<br />Did not carry written messages because they had no written language<br />
  13. 13. Spanish Rule<br />Spanish captured new Inca ruler on his way to be crowned king<br />Demanded enough gold & silver to fill a room<br />Killed king instead of setting him free<br />Fighting broke out<br />By 1535 the Spanish had conquered the Inca Empire<br />Spanish rulers<br />Were harsh to South American Indians of Inca Empire<br />Had to work in gold or silver mines or on plantations<br />Spanish viceroy (governor) was appointed by king of Spain to ensure Indians followed Spanish laws & customs<br />
  14. 14. Independence<br />Early 1800s<br />Revolts began against Spanish rule<br />Creoles (American-born descendants of Europeans) were the main leaders of revolts<br />1825<br />Chile, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia became independent<br />
  15. 15. Culture<br />Spanish & native cultures have left their mark<br />Most speak Spanish<br />Many maintain native culture<br />Speak native languages<br />Spanish & Indian heritage also present<br />Bolivia: highest % of South American Indians on any country in South America<br />Follow customs & lifestyles that existed centuries ago<br />Spanish & Indian influence in religion<br />Roman Catholicism<br />Some practice ancient religious customs<br />
  16. 16. Section 3<br />Pacific South America Today<br />
  17. 17. Ecuador Today<br />Faced recent instability<br />Widespread poverty (factor that threatens stable gov’t)<br />Government<br />Democracy, but 9 presidents in 10 years<br />2005 President fired judges of supreme court<br />People were not happy (thought he was trying to gain too much power)<br />Also not happy w/ recent economic reforms to improve housing, medical care, and education had failed<br />People & gov’t forced president from power as a result<br />
  18. 18. Economic Regions<br />3 economic regions<br />Coastal lowlands: agriculture & industry<br />Andean region: poorer; capital located here; open-air markets & Spanish colonial buildings attract tourists<br />Amazon basin: valuable oil deposits (provides jobs that bring people to region); economy suffers if world oil prices drop; harmful to rain forest<br />
  19. 19. Bolivia Today<br />Poor country & political unrest recently<br />Government<br />Democracy now after years of military rule<br />Gov’t divided between two capital cities<br />2000s<br />People disagreed with gov’t plans for use of country’s resources & how to fight poverty<br />National protests forces several presidents to resign<br />2005<br />Indigenous leader was elected (Evo Morales)<br />Worked to improve lives of the poor<br />
  20. 20. Economy<br />Poorest country in South America<br />Few roads & little investment money in eastern Bolivia<br />Foreign aid has allowed some development<br />Has valuable resources like metals & natural gas<br />
  21. 21. Peru Today<br />Largest & most populous<br />Making progress against political violence & poverty<br />Lima<br />Capital of Peru<br />1/3 of people live here<br />Has industries, universities, & gov’t jobs<br />Big urban areas where people live in poverty<br />Few slum areas though (poor claim land on outskirts of city)<br />Build their own houses often out of poor building materials<br />Settlements of new self-built houses are called young towns<br />Over time houses are improved & areas develops into new suburb<br />
  22. 22. Government<br />1980s & 1990s<br />Terrorist group Shining Path carried out deadly attacks because it opposed the gov’t policies<br />70,000 people died<br />Economy suffered<br />Group leaders were arrested & gov’t began making progress against political violence & poverty<br />Has an elected president & congress<br />
  23. 23. Resources<br />Key factors in economic progress<br />Mineral deposits near coast<br />Hydroelectric projects provide energy<br />Highland are less developed<br />Indians grow potatoes & corn here<br />
  24. 24. Chile Today<br />Has ended long violent period<br />Stable gov’t & growing economy<br />Government<br />1970: president w/ communist ideas was elected<br />Overthrown & died in a U.S. backed military coup (a sudden overthrow of a gov’t by a small group of people)<br />Military rulers gained power & crushed political enemies<br />Gov’t was harsh & violent (thousands were imprisoned or killed)<br />1980s<br />People rejected military rule after 15 years<br />Created democratic gov’t<br />People enjoy many freedoms<br />One of most stable countries in South America<br />
  25. 25. Resources & Economy<br />Economy is strongest in region<br />Poverty rates have decreased<br />Small businesses & factories are growing<br />Many people are finding work & wages are rising<br />1/3 of people live in central Chile<br />Mild climate allow farmers to grow many crops<br />Grapes & fruits<br />Farming, fishing, forestry, & mining foundation of economy<br />Copper mining is especially important<br />International trade is also key<br />Free trade agreement w/ U.S.<br />

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