Section 2


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Section 2

  1. 1. Section 2 City States & Greek Culture
  2. 2.  800 B.C. Greece began building settlements again  Started with small villages, grew into towns, & towns joined with nearby villages to create a polis or city state
  3. 3. Rise of City-States  Built walled fortresses or acropolis on top of hills for protection  Acropolis became center for daily life  Houses, temples, & open air markets and gathering places called agora were found outside acropolis  Kings or tyrants (someone who took control of a government by force and rules alone) ruled city states at first  Made all political decisions  In time city states developed their own way of governing  Aristocracy (wealthy ruling class) sometimes shared power with the king  Comprised of landowners & merchants  In other city states all free men rich or poor took part in gov’t  Met in an assembly to make all decisions for the whole community  Most city states had fewer than 5,000 people  Overcrowding eventually caused people to find new places to live  Colonies developed in Asia Minor, southern Europe, & northern Africa  New colonies brought new natural resources & trade markets  Greek ideas & customs also spread  Rivalries grew between city states  Began fighting over control of areas of Greece
  4. 4. Sparta  Ancient civilization focused on physical activity  Descendants of Dorian settlers  Leaders believed through military strength they could control a city state ten times as large  Sparta was filled with slaves  250,000 slaves & 25,000 citizens  Formed a military culture to protect themselves against a slave revolt  Children were put into training camps at age 7. Girls returned home after several years of training, but boys trained for war until 30  Men at 30 were allowed to become citizens, marry & have families  Not free from army duty until 60
  5. 5. Army Camps  Taught Spartans to obey leaders without question  Never give up a battle, even when wounded  Wore red uniforms to hide their wounds  Was a disgrace to lose  Greatest honor was to die defending their land
  6. 6. Women in Sparta  Had fewer rights than men  Ran their homes & handled business matters  May have owned 2/5 of the land in Sparta
  7. 7. Way of Life  Lived simple & sparse way of life  By law everyone ate “in common, of the same bread & same meat”  Trading was discouraged  New ideas may bring unwanted change  Citizens rarely allowed to travel outside their city state  Depended on themselves & their resources  Way of life changed little over time  Sparta had two kings with little authority except in time of war  Had assembly of citizens, but also very weak  5 wealthy landowners called ephors or small ruling group controlled the gov’t  Made all decisions for Sparta  Strict gov’t that was admired by many throughout Greece
  8. 8. Athens  Main city state in southern uplands  Young men were required to serve in the army only in time of war  Gov’t encouraged people to take part in community decisions  Grew into a system of democracy (rule by the people)  Solon, Athenian leader, helped bring democracy to Athens around 594 B.C.  People had more rights in gov’t under him  508 B.C. Cleisthenes allowed people to play even greater roles in gov’t  500 B.C. every free adult male over 20 was considered a citizen of Athens  Citizens took part in city state’s assembly called Ecclesia  Every member had 1 vote  Decisions were made by majority rule  Kept any one person from taking control of Athens
  9. 9.  At special meetings a person could be exiled for 10 years if they received 6,000 ostraca or broken pieces of clay pots  English word ostracism “act of shutting someone out”  Athenian democracy did not include everyone  Women could not take part in gov’t & did not count as citizens  Did manage the family budget & household  Slaves also did not have a part in democracy even though they made up 1/3 of population & did most of the work giving citizens the time to take part in democracy
  10. 10. To Be “Greek”  During this time there was no sense of belonging to a single country  People id with city state instead  People did feel a culture connection or cultural identity with one another  All Greeks called themselves Hellenes because they believed they had a common ancestor, the hero Hellen  Ancient myth said that Hellen alone survived a flood long ago  Also shared religion  Cultural ID was seen in various activities  Olympic Games brought city states together in peace  Began about 776 B.C.  Meet every 4 years to compete in athletic contests to honor the god Zeus (gods controlled daily events in the world)  Common written language brought city states together  Developed an alphabet based on the alphabet of the Phoenicians  1st letter was alpha, 2nd beta (English word alphabet comes from these Greek letters)