History’s Beginnings
Earliest Human Societies
Early Human Migration to 10,000years ago http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wh_survey/g et_chapter_group.htm?cin=1&ci=1...
Studying History and Early Humans Why do people study history and try to learn more about the past?   To find out about ...
Why Study History What has happened to a person, a family, or society in the past may affect what will occur in the futur...
Primary and Secondary Sources Evidence used to answer Historians questions Primary Source: something written or created ...
 Secondary Source: a work produces about a historical event by someone who was not actually there   Newspapers, books, a...
Why History Changes Historians might use different evidence Steps:    Evidence is examined and trustworthy evidence is ...
Early Humans Were Hunter-Gatherers Hunted animals and gathered plants for food Moved to new locations when food ran out
Adapting to the Environment Depended on Environment for shelter    Lived in caves, rock shelters, made shelters out of t...
Early Humans on the Move Hunter-gatherers were nomads: people who move from place to place   Movement limited; returned ...
Developing Tools and Culture Technology: ways in which people apply knowledge, tools,  and inventions to meet their needs...
Early Human Culture Art, language, and religion are unique to humans Language: develop out of need to communicate Relig...
The Beginnings of Agriculture 8,000 B.C.    Learned to grow plants and raise animals Climate Changes    Rising temps c...
The Domestication of Animals Learned to capture and tame animals    Captured animals provided constant source of food 9...
The Agricultural Revolution Development of farming    Agriculture: planting of seeds to raise crops Ag. Revolution    ...
The First Communities
Settlements Begin Became better farmers as tools improved Groups remained in same areas instead of moving Developed lar...
Farming Villages DevelopWorldwide Agriculture developed where water was available Irrigation: the watering of dry land u...
Village Life Advantages:    Food was plentiful    Could withstand attacks by nomadic bands Disadvantages:    Risk of ...
Surpluses Boost Development As agriculture techniques improved, farmers produced  surpluses    More than what is needed ...
People Develop Different Skills Not everyone had to raise food with surpluses People began to specializing    Skill in ...
Simple Villages Grow MoreComplex Surpluses and specialization led to growth of villages Life became more complex Social...
A Changing Way of Life More people living together in villages Increased trade between villages Skilled people spent ye...
Life in Complex Villages Larger population & live closer together Larger supply of skills, ideas, and needs Life more c...
Catal Huyuk   Complex village in Turkey   8,000 people   32 acres   Agricultural village     Wheat, barley, and peas...
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Blog notes chapter 1

  1. 1. History’s Beginnings
  2. 2. Earliest Human Societies
  3. 3. Early Human Migration to 10,000years ago http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wh_survey/g et_chapter_group.htm?cin=1&ci=1&rg=map_center&at =animated_maps&var=animated_maps
  4. 4. Studying History and Early Humans Why do people study history and try to learn more about the past?  To find out about ancestors and more about themselves http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wh_survey/p age_build.htm?id=resources/jsp/starting_with_a_stor y/starting_with_a_story_ch1
  5. 5. Why Study History What has happened to a person, a family, or society in the past may affect what will occur in the future  More than recounting and studying past events  Involves: studying society’s culture, religion, politics, and economics Historians try to find patterns and see past through eyes of people who lived it
  6. 6. Primary and Secondary Sources Evidence used to answer Historians questions Primary Source: something written or created by a person who witnessed a historical event  Military records, marriage certificates, diaries, and private letters  Artifacts: buildings, works of art, tools  Oral History: made up of verbal or unwritten accounts of events  includes stories, customs, and songs
  7. 7.  Secondary Source: a work produces about a historical event by someone who was not actually there  Newspapers, books, and paintings  Oral History
  8. 8. Why History Changes Historians might use different evidence Steps:  Evidence is examined and trustworthy evidence is sorted.  Evidence is interpreted: articles, books, and museum displays  Interpretations can be conflicting  Discovery of new evidence may lead to new conclusions
  9. 9. Early Humans Were Hunter-Gatherers Hunted animals and gathered plants for food Moved to new locations when food ran out
  10. 10. Adapting to the Environment Depended on Environment for shelter  Lived in caves, rock shelters, made shelters out of tree branches, plant fibers or skins of animals Lived together in bands  Made up of several families (30 people)  Men: hunted and fished  Women: gathered foods and cared for children
  11. 11. Early Humans on the Move Hunter-gatherers were nomads: people who move from place to place  Movement limited; returned to same places with changing seasons  Some moved to new lands  Migration: the act of moving from one place to settle in another Migration  People followed animals to hunt  13,000 B.C. had migrated to much of world  Traveled across a land bridge connecting Siberia and Alaska
  12. 12. Developing Tools and Culture Technology: ways in which people apply knowledge, tools, and inventions to meet their needs. The Development of Technology  2 million years ago Stone tools for cutting  Carrying bags, stone hand axes, awls, drills, bows, flint spearheads, metal tools  Tools used for: building shelter, hunting and butchering animals The Use of Fire  500,000 years ago: learned to make fire  Provided heat and light (could cook food)  Used to temper tools made of metal
  13. 13. Early Human Culture Art, language, and religion are unique to humans Language: develop out of need to communicate Religion: the worship of God, gods, or spirits  Early Humans: everything in nature had a spirit Early Art: created in caves or on rocks
  14. 14. The Beginnings of Agriculture 8,000 B.C.  Learned to grow plants and raise animals Climate Changes  Rising temps caused glaciers to melt  Humans could move into new areas  Growing seasons became longer  Domesticated : (humans learned to grown and breed the grasses ) wild grasses
  15. 15. The Domestication of Animals Learned to capture and tame animals  Captured animals provided constant source of food 9,000 B.C.  1st animals domesticated  Reliable food source, clothing, and other products  Made tools from bones  Horses, llamas, and camels used for transportation  Dogs domesticated to help in hunts
  16. 16. The Agricultural Revolution Development of farming  Agriculture: planting of seeds to raise crops Ag. Revolution  Shift from food gathering to food raising  Began around 8,000 B.C.  Brought changes in tools and technology  People made hoes, plows and sickles  More food available allowed for increases in population and better opportunities to settle in one place
  17. 17. The First Communities
  18. 18. Settlements Begin Became better farmers as tools improved Groups remained in same areas instead of moving Developed larger, more permanent settlements
  19. 19. Farming Villages DevelopWorldwide Agriculture developed where water was available Irrigation: the watering of dry land using systems of ditches, pipes, and streams Fertile soil: produced bigger & better crops  Attracted farmers to larger villages; villages grew in size
  20. 20. Village Life Advantages:  Food was plentiful  Could withstand attacks by nomadic bands Disadvantages:  Risk of fire, disease, and flood
  21. 21. Surpluses Boost Development As agriculture techniques improved, farmers produced surpluses  More than what is needed to survive Surpluses not limited to food  Materials for making cloth or other products (wool) Surpluses in good seasons helped during bad seasons Able to support more people during surpluses  Population grew, villages economies varied as people developed special skills
  22. 22. People Develop Different Skills Not everyone had to raise food with surpluses People began to specializing  Skill in one kind of work Potters, weavers, and holy person or shamans (interpreted natural events) Non-farmers traded their goods and services for food
  23. 23. Simple Villages Grow MoreComplex Surpluses and specialization led to growth of villages Life became more complex Social relationships became more complicated
  24. 24. A Changing Way of Life More people living together in villages Increased trade between villages Skilled people spent years learning trade  Artisans: people trained in skills or craft  Occupational classes or social classes developed  Social class: a group of people with similar customs, backgrounds, training, and income. Need for laws and leadership to keep order and settle disputes  Government created  Communities safer and more stable
  25. 25. Life in Complex Villages Larger population & live closer together Larger supply of skills, ideas, and needs Life more complicated
  26. 26. Catal Huyuk Complex village in Turkey 8,000 people 32 acres Agricultural village  Wheat, barley, and peas Raised sheep Buried dead under floors of their homes Vivid murals on walls of houses Developed special skills  Making tools and luxury items  Produced cloth, wooden vessels, and simple pottery

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