The Indian Subcontinent
Physical Geography
Physical Features Subcontinent    A large landmass that is smaller than a continent Indian Subcontinent    Also called...
Mountains Mt. ranges separate Indian  Subcontinent from Asia Hindu Kush mts.    In the NW; separate from      Central A...
Rivers & Plains Two major rivers systems    The Ganges & the Indus (originate in Himalayas)         Carry water from mt...
Other Features Deccan    South of Ganges Plains    Large, hilly plateau Thar (or Great Indian Desert)    East of Indu...
Climate Climate Regions    Vary depending on location    Himalayas’: highland climate; cool temps    The plains: humid...
Natural Resources Fertile soil    Most important resource        Produce many crops: tea, rice, nuts, & jute (used to m...
History and Culture of India
Early Civilizations and Empires 1 of world’s oldest civilizations    Early civilizations greatly influenced history
Ancient Civilizations Indus River Valley    Harappan civilization        2300-1700 B.C.        Declined in 1700 B.C. i...
Early Empires Powerful kingdoms emerged Mauryan Empire   Dominated region in 320 B.C.   Rulers raised huge armies & co...
 Gupta Empire(AD 300s)    United much of north India    Under Gupta rulers trade & culture thrived    Scholars made ad...
The Mughal Empire 600s    Muslims began raids in India        Some tried to take over Indian kingdoms           Turkis...
The British Empire Early 1500s    England rose to power as Mughal Empire declined 1600s    English presence in India b...
 British rule    Angered & frightened many Indians    East India Co. controlled w/ army mostly made up of     Indian tr...
Independence & Division Late 1800s    British rule ?    Indian National Congress created        Tried of being 2nd cla...
 Britain agrees to independence Hindu & Muslim communities create tensions    Muslims feared having little say in new g...
Religion India is birthplace of several major religions Hinduism   Dominant religion of India   Everything in the univ...
Caste System Divided Indian society into groups based on a person’s  birth or occupation 4 classes (originally based on ...
India
Daily Life 1 billion people Many different ethnic groups, religions, & lifestyles   All help unite people of India
Cities Very populated Most work in factories & offices Universities, research centers, & high-tech businesses City-dwe...
Villages Most live in rural areas 70% of population Most work as farmers & live w/ extended family Recent addition of ...
Religion Plays key role in daily life Most practice Hinduism Islam & Buddhism also practiced Native religions of Sikhi...
India’s Challenges Population    Huge population places strain on environment & resources     (including food, housing, ...
India’s Neighbors
Culture Have different cultures than India People    Many ethnic groups        Sherpas: ethnic group from the mts. of ...
Pakistan Lacks govt’ stability Suffered from rebellions & assassinations of gov’t leaders  since 1947    2001 General P...
Bangladesh Small country (size of Wisconsin) Population ½ the size of U.S. 1 of world’s most densely populated countrie...
Nepal Population growing rapidly    Has doubled in last 30 years Poverty and unemployment are also high One of world’s...
Bhutan Small mt. kingdom Has been isolated    Outside influences limited    1900s king est. ties w/ Great Britain & In...
Sri Lanka India has great influence    Tamil & Sinhalese 2 largest ethnic groups descended     from India settlers Conf...
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Chapter 25

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Chapter 25

  1. 1. The Indian Subcontinent
  2. 2. Physical Geography
  3. 3. Physical Features Subcontinent  A large landmass that is smaller than a continent Indian Subcontinent  Also called South Asia  Consists of 7 countries  Make up most unique geographic regions in the world
  4. 4. Mountains Mt. ranges separate Indian Subcontinent from Asia Hindu Kush mts.  In the NW; separate from Central Asia Eastern & Western Ghats  Lower mts.; separate India’s east & west coasts from interior Himalayas  Stretch 1,500 miles along northern border  Formed by collision of 2 massive tectonic plates  Mt. Everest  Measures 29,035 feet
  5. 5. Rivers & Plains Two major rivers systems  The Ganges & the Indus (originate in Himalayas)  Carry water from mts. & cause flooding which leaves rich soil deposits & fertile plains Ganges River  Most important  Northern India to Bangladesh and forms a delta w/ other rivers  Delta: a landform at the mouth of a river created by sediment deposits  Ganges Plains: farming heartland of India Indus River  Created fertile plain (Indus River Valley)  Once home to earliest civilizations
  6. 6. Other Features Deccan  South of Ganges Plains  Large, hilly plateau Thar (or Great Indian Desert)  East of Indus Valley  Rolling sand dunes Tarai  Southern Nepal  Fertile farmland & tropical jungles
  7. 7. Climate Climate Regions  Vary depending on location  Himalayas’: highland climate; cool temps  The plains: humid subtropical climate; hot humid summers w/ plenty of rain  Tropical climates over most of subcontinent  Tropical savanna: warm temps year round; wet/dry seasons  Humid tropical: warms temps & heavy rain  Dry climates: desert & steppe climates Monsoons: seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area  June-October: summer monsoons; moist air from Indian Ocean; heavy rains & flooding  Winter: winds change directions; dry air from north; little rain
  8. 8. Natural Resources Fertile soil  Most important resource  Produce many crops: tea, rice, nuts, & jute (used to make rope) Timber & livestock also key Mineral resources  Iron ore, coal, natural gas, & gemstones
  9. 9. History and Culture of India
  10. 10. Early Civilizations and Empires 1 of world’s oldest civilizations  Early civilizations greatly influenced history
  11. 11. Ancient Civilizations Indus River Valley  Harappan civilization  2300-1700 B.C.  Declined in 1700 B.C. invaders, natural disaster, ?  Aryans  From Central Asia  Powerful warriors  Conquered & settled fertile plains along Indus & Ganges Rivers  Greatly influenced Indian culture  Language (Sanskrit) serves as basis of languages in South Asia  Aryans mixed w/ Indian already living in fertile plains  Religious beliefs & customs mixed (forming beginnings of India’s social system & Hindu)
  12. 12. Early Empires Powerful kingdoms emerged Mauryan Empire  Dominated region in 320 B.C.  Rulers raised huge armies & conquered almost entire subcontinent  Asoka (1 of greatest rulers) helped expand empire & improve trade  Also encouraged acceptance of other religions  After his death power struggles & invasions destroyed Mauryan Empire
  13. 13.  Gupta Empire(AD 300s)  United much of north India  Under Gupta rulers trade & culture thrived  Scholars made advances in math, medicine, & astronomy Attacks & invaders from Asia weakened empire over time AD 550 India was once again divided
  14. 14. The Mughal Empire 600s  Muslims began raids in India  Some tried to take over Indian kingdoms  Turkish Muslims est. a powerful kingdom at Delhi 1500s  New Muslim invaders swept across subcontinent  Lead by Babur they conquered much of India an est. Mughal Empire  Babur grandson Akbar was 1 on India’s greatest rulers  Trade flourished (demand for spices & tea grew)  Empire grew rich  Culture also promoted  Promoted religious tolerance & encouraged peace in empire  Architecture also thrived
  15. 15. The British Empire Early 1500s  England rose to power as Mughal Empire declined 1600s  English presence in India began  High demand for Indian goods (cotton & sugar)  East Indian Company (British trading Co.) granted trading rights by Mughal rulers East Indian Co.  At 1st small trading posts  Power & territory expanded w/ more British presence in India  Mid 1800s controlled more than half of the Indian Subcontinent  India became a British colony
  16. 16.  British rule  Angered & frightened many Indians  East India Co. controlled w/ army mostly made up of Indian troops commanded by British officers 1857  Indian troops revolted  Violence across India followed  British gov’t crushed rebellion & took control of India away from East India Co.
  17. 17. Independence & Division Late 1800s  British rule ?  Indian National Congress created  Tried of being 2nd class citizens  Goal: gain more rights & opportunities Demand for independence grew Mohandas Gandhi  Important leader of independence movement  1920s-1930s strategy of nonviolent protest convinced millions to support independence
  18. 18.  Britain agrees to independence Hindu & Muslim communities create tensions  Muslims feared having little say in new gov’t & wanted to become separate nation Avoiding Civil War  British gov’t agreed to partition of India  1947 2 independent countries formed  India: mostly Hindu  Pakistan & present day Bangladesh: mostly Muslim (10 million left India) Other countries followed  Sri Lanka & Maldives  1971 after bloody civil war that killed 1 million people East Pakistan broke away and became Bangladesh
  19. 19. Religion India is birthplace of several major religions Hinduism  Dominant religion of India  Everything in the universe is part of a single spirit Brahman  Ultimate goal is to reunite soul with Brahman  Souls are reincarnated many times before this happens Buddhism  A religious belief based on the teachings of Buddha  People can rise above their desire for material goods & reach nirvana (a ste of perfect peace in which suffering and reincarnation end
  20. 20. Caste System Divided Indian society into groups based on a person’s birth or occupation 4 classes (originally based on occupation) Dalits  Members of India’s lowest class
  21. 21. India
  22. 22. Daily Life 1 billion people Many different ethnic groups, religions, & lifestyles  All help unite people of India
  23. 23. Cities Very populated Most work in factories & offices Universities, research centers, & high-tech businesses City-dwellers struggle to make living  Most live in shacks made of scrap wood or metal  No plumbing & little clean water
  24. 24. Villages Most live in rural areas 70% of population Most work as farmers & live w/ extended family Recent addition of paved roads & electricity
  25. 25. Religion Plays key role in daily life Most practice Hinduism Islam & Buddhism also practiced Native religions of Sikhism & Jainism also practiced Popular festival: Diwali
  26. 26. India’s Challenges Population  Huge population places strain on environment & resources (including food, housing, & schools)  Cities are particularly affected  Urbanization: the increase in the percentage of people who live in cities  Many moved to cities in search of jobs Gov’t & Economy  Leaders have strengthened gov’t & economy  World’s largest democracy  Challenge is providing for growing population & resolving conflicts w/ Pakistan (both have nuclear weapons)  Millions of Indians live in poverty  Green revolution: program that encouraged farmers to adopt modern agricultural methods  Helped produce more food
  27. 27. India’s Neighbors
  28. 28. Culture Have different cultures than India People  Many ethnic groups  Sherpas: ethnic group from the mts. of Nepal; guide through Himalayas  Bhutan’s largest ethnic group originally from Tibet  Sri Lanka’s Tamil people came from India to work on plantations Religion  Pakistan & Bangladesh  Practice Islam & small group of Hinduism, Christianity, & tribal religions  Nepal  Hinduism & some Buddhism  Bhutan & Sri Lanka  Buddhism
  29. 29. Pakistan Lacks govt’ stability Suffered from rebellions & assassinations of gov’t leaders since 1947  2001 General Pervez Musharraf came to power as military coup Rapid population growth  Struggles to manage resources & reduce poverty Relations w/ India  Clashed over territory of Kashmir  Both control region; armed troops guard line of control that divides east & west Kashmir 2001  Has aided U.S. in war on terrorism
  30. 30. Bangladesh Small country (size of Wisconsin) Population ½ the size of U.S. 1 of world’s most densely populated countries  2,850 people per square mile Flooding is one of biggest challenges  Streams & rivers flood annually  Damage homes & farms  Destroys schools & roads as well
  31. 31. Nepal Population growing rapidly  Has doubled in last 30 years Poverty and unemployment are also high One of world’s least developed nations Faces environmental threats  More land needed to grow food to feed growing population  Deforestation causes soil erosion & harms wildlife  Tourism also hurts environment (use resources & leave behind trash)
  32. 32. Bhutan Small mt. kingdom Has been isolated  Outside influences limited  1900s king est. ties w/ Great Britain & India Efforts to modernize resulted in new roads, schools, & hospitals Today continues to develop economically Most are farmers (grow rice, potatoes, & corn)  Some raise livestock (yaks, pigs, & horses) Industry is also important Gov’t limits # of visitors to protect environment & way of life
  33. 33. Sri Lanka India has great influence  Tamil & Sinhalese 2 largest ethnic groups descended from India settlers Conflicts between ethnic groups divide country  Tamil want a separate state 2004 tsunami  Killed thousands and more than 500,000 people were left homeless  Damaged fishing & agriculture industries

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