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FOUNDATIONS
PREPARED BY

S V GIRI BABU
GOVT. POLYTECHNIC
VIJAYAWADA
OBJECTIVES
► To know the construction of foundation
► To know the different types foundations
► To know which type of foun...
FOUNDATION
Every structure consists of two parts:
►
►

Sub-structure or foundation and
Super structure

Foundation : It is...
TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
1.
2.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS (D<= B)
DEEP FOUNDATIONS
(D>= B)

L

G

D

B

FOUNDATION
TYPES OF FONDATIONS
1.

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
 WALL FOUNDATION
 ISOLATED COLUMN
FOUNDATION
 COMBINED FOUNDATION
 MAT OR ...
Wall foundation
RAMMER

FOUNDATION
TRENCH
SAND OR PEIECES OF
BRICKS etc..,
WALL FOUNDATION

W
ALL

PC C

W
ALL

II FOOTING

I FOOTING

SIMP
LE
FOUNDATION

PC C

STEP ED
P
FOUNDATION
ISOLATED FOOTING
►
►

It is provided under columns to transfer the load safely to
bed soil
These footings may be slab, ste...
COLUMN

FOOTING

PCC

ISOLATED COLUMN
FOUNDATION
COMBINED FOOTING
►
►

A combined footing is the one which supports two columns and it may
be rectangular or trapezoidal in...
c

R C C SLAB

c

COMBINED FOOTING
MAT FOUNDATION
► It is most suitable foundation when the soil at the

site proposed for the construction of a structure is...
C

C
MAIN BEAM
R C C SLAB
PCC BED
SECTION ALONG AA

COLUMN

MAIN BEAM

A

SECONDARY
BEAM

MAT FOUNDATION

A
PILE FOUNDATIONS
►

►
►
►
►
►
►

Pile foundation is more commonly used in building
construction.
Pile foundations are used...
CLASSIFICATION OF PILES
BASED ON FUNCTION
PILES
END BEARING PILES FRICTION PILES

COMPACTION PILES

TENSION PILES

ANCHOR ...
END BEARING PILE : These piles are used to transfer load
through water or soft soil to a
suitable
bearing stratum.

SOFT
S...
FRICTION PILE:These piles are used to transfer loads to a
PILE:
depth of a friction load carrying material by
means of ski...
COMPACTION PILE: These piles are used to compact loose
soils, thus increasing their bearing capacity.
The
compaction piles...
UNDER REAMED PILE
►

►

In black cotton soils and other expansive type of soils,
buildings often crack due to relative gro...
BORE HOLE

UNDER-REAMED
EQUIPMENT
UNDER-REAMED PILE
WELL FOUNDATION
Well foundation is a box of timber, metal, reinforced
concrete or masonry which open both at the top and
b...
PIER
WELL CAP
TOP PLUG

STEINING
SAND FIILING
CURB
CUTTING EDGE

WELL FOUNDATION

BOTTOM PLUG
FRAMED STRUCTURE
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
types of Foundations with animated sketches
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types of Foundations with animated sketches

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i have developed ppts with animated figs. for easy understanding of students

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  • It defined as the depth of foundation is less than or equal to Breadth of foundation. Shallow foundations are generally for 2 to 3m depth
  • Transcript of "types of Foundations with animated sketches"

    1. 1. FOUNDATIONS PREPARED BY S V GIRI BABU GOVT. POLYTECHNIC VIJAYAWADA
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES ► To know the construction of foundation ► To know the different types foundations ► To know which type of foundation is suitable for different types soils.
    3. 3. FOUNDATION Every structure consists of two parts: ► ► Sub-structure or foundation and Super structure Foundation : It is the lowest part of a structure which is constructed below the ground level. The function of foundation is to transmit the weight of super structure to the sub soil.
    4. 4. TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 1. 2. SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS (D<= B) DEEP FOUNDATIONS (D>= B) L G D B FOUNDATION
    5. 5. TYPES OF FONDATIONS 1. SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS  WALL FOUNDATION  ISOLATED COLUMN FOUNDATION  COMBINED FOUNDATION  MAT OR RAFT FOUNDATION 2. DEEP FONDATIONS  PILE FOUNDATIONS  UNDER-REAMED PILE  WELL FOUNDATIONS
    6. 6. Wall foundation RAMMER FOUNDATION TRENCH SAND OR PEIECES OF BRICKS etc..,
    7. 7. WALL FOUNDATION W ALL PC C W ALL II FOOTING I FOOTING SIMP LE FOUNDATION PC C STEP ED P FOUNDATION
    8. 8. ISOLATED FOOTING ► ► It is provided under columns to transfer the load safely to bed soil These footings may be slab, stepped or sloped ones.
    9. 9. COLUMN FOOTING PCC ISOLATED COLUMN FOUNDATION
    10. 10. COMBINED FOOTING ► ► A combined footing is the one which supports two columns and it may be rectangular or trapezoidal in plan. The aim is to get uniform pressure distribution under the footing. For this the center of gravity of the footing area should coincide with the center of gravity of the combined loads of the two columns. Combined footings are used in the following situations: ► ► ► When the columns are very near to each other so that their footings overlap. When the bearing capacity of the soil is less, requiring more area under individual footing. When the end column is near a property line so that its footing canot spread in that direction.
    11. 11. c R C C SLAB c COMBINED FOOTING
    12. 12. MAT FOUNDATION ► It is most suitable foundation when the soil at the site proposed for the construction of a structure is erratic, soft clay, made up ground or marshy land with low bearing capacity. ► Mat foundation is constructed of RCC slab covering the whole area of the bottom of the structure. The slab is provided with steel reinforcing bars in both directions. When column loads are heavy, the main beams and secondary beams are provided monolithically with raft slab.
    13. 13. C C MAIN BEAM R C C SLAB PCC BED SECTION ALONG AA COLUMN MAIN BEAM A SECONDARY BEAM MAT FOUNDATION A
    14. 14. PILE FOUNDATIONS ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Pile foundation is more commonly used in building construction. Pile foundations are used in the following situations: The load of the super structure is heavy and its distribution is uneven The top soil has poor bearing capacity The subsoil water level is high There is large fluctuations in subsoil water level Canal or deep drainage lines exist near the foundation The structure is situated on the sea shore or river bed
    15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF PILES BASED ON FUNCTION PILES END BEARING PILES FRICTION PILES COMPACTION PILES TENSION PILES ANCHOR PILES CLASSIFICATION OF PILES BASED ON MATERIALS AND COMPOSITION PILES CONCRETE PILES TIMBER PILES STEEL PILES COMPOSITE PILES PRE-CAST PILES H - PILE CONCRETE AND TIMBER CAST-IN SITU PILES PIPE PILE CONCRETE AND STEEL SHEET PILE
    16. 16. END BEARING PILE : These piles are used to transfer load through water or soft soil to a suitable bearing stratum. SOFT SOFT SOIL SOIL END BEARING PILE
    17. 17. FRICTION PILE:These piles are used to transfer loads to a PILE: depth of a friction load carrying material by means of skin friction along the length of pile. FRICTION PILE
    18. 18. COMPACTION PILE: These piles are used to compact loose soils, thus increasing their bearing capacity. The compaction piles themselves do not carry any load. Hence they may be of weaker material (sand). The pile tube, driven to compact the soil, is gradually taken out and sand is filled in its place thus forming a ‘sand pile’. COMPACTION PILE
    19. 19. UNDER REAMED PILE ► ► In black cotton soils and other expansive type of soils, buildings often crack due to relative ground movements. This is caused by alternate swelling and shrinking of the soil due to changes in its moisture content. The under-reamed pile is used to safe guard this movement effectively. Generally this foundation is used for machine foundation, factory building, transmission line towers and other tall structures also.
    20. 20. BORE HOLE UNDER-REAMED EQUIPMENT
    21. 21. UNDER-REAMED PILE
    22. 22. WELL FOUNDATION Well foundation is a box of timber, metal, reinforced concrete or masonry which open both at the top and bottom, and is used for building for building and bridge foundations. Types of well shapes: ► Circular ► Rectangular ► Double – D ► Twin circular etc.., ►
    23. 23. PIER WELL CAP TOP PLUG STEINING SAND FIILING CURB CUTTING EDGE WELL FOUNDATION BOTTOM PLUG
    24. 24. FRAMED STRUCTURE
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