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Advanced Type Civil Engineering Structures


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Some information about Advanced Type Civil Engineering Structures

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Advanced Type Civil Engineering Structures

  2. 2. Different types of advanced civil engineering structure  Multi storeyed building  Chimney  Dams  Bridges  Industrial structures  Retaining wall  Hydraulic structure  Marine structure
  3. 3. Multi storeyed building  The tallness of a building is relative and can not be defined in absolute terms either in relation to height or the number of stories. But, from a structural engineer's point of view the tall building or multi-storeyed building can be defined as one that, by virtue of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake or both to an extent that they play an important role in the structural design.  The development of the high-rise building has followed the growth of the city closely. The process of urbanisation, that started with the age of industrialisation, is still in progress in developing countries like India.
  4. 4. Chimney  Chimneys or stacks are very important industrial structures for emission of poisonous gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to a higher elevation such that the gases do not contaminate surrounding atmosphere. These structures are tall, slender and generally with circular cross-sections. Different construction materials, such as concrete, steel or masonry, are used to build chimneys. Steel chimneys are ideally suited for process work where a short heat-up period and low thermal capacity are required. Also, steel chimneys are economical for height up to 45m.
  5. 5. Dams  A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding water for various purposes.  A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.  Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the foundation is good.  Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.  Dams are probably the most important hydraulic structure built on the rivers. These are very huge structure and require huge money, manpower and time to construct.
  6. 6. Bridges  A structure built in order to allow people or vehicles to cross a river or a valley etc. Bridges are structures which carry people and vehicles across natural or man- made obstacles
  7. 7. Industrial structures  An industrial building is any structure that is used to store raw materials or furnished goods from a manufacturing process or house the process itself like:  Food processing  Chemical processing  Paper and pulp industry  Metals industry  Powerplants  Engineering industry  Electronics industry or  High bay storages
  8. 8. Retaining wall  Retaining walls are structure used to retain soil, rock or other materials in a vertical condition. Hence they provide a lateral support to vertical slopes of soil that would otherwise collapse into a more natural shape.
  9. 9. Hydraulic structures  Canal head regulator  Syphon  Barrage
  10. 10. Syphon  A canal can be conveyed below a natural stream with the help of structures like a super-passage or a siphon. These are exactly opposite in function to that of the aqueducts and siphon aqueducts, which are used to carry the canal water above the natural stream. The natural stream is flumed and made to pass in a trough above the canal. If the canal water flows with a free surface, that is, without touching the bottom of the trough, it is called a super-passage. Else, when the canal passes below the trough as a pressure flow, then it is termed as a syphon or a canal syphon.
  11. 11. Canal head regulator  A canal obtains its share of water from the pool behind a barrage through a structure called the canal head regulator. Though this is also a regulation structure for controlling the amount of water passing into the canal (with the help of adjustable gates), it shall be discussed under diversion works (Module 4). In this lesson, attention is focussed on structures that regulate the discharge and maintain the water levels within a canal network
  12. 12. Marine structures  Docks  Harbours  Jetty
  13. 13. Harbours  Ports and harbours conduct four important functions: administrative (ensuring that the legal, socio-political and economic interests of the state and international maritime authorities are protected), development (ports are major promoters and instigators of a country’s or wider regional economy), industrial (major industries process the goods imported or exported in a port), and commercial (ports are international trade junction points where various modes of transport interchange; loading, discharging, transit of goods).