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Chapter No.04

FOUNDATIONS

“Building Construction and Graphics”
FALL-2013.

By. Engr.Rahat Ullah

1
outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Introduction
Purpose of foundation
Importance of foundation in building construction
Foundation requirements
Load and settlement of foundation
Factors affecting foundation design
Underpinning
Types of foundations
 Shallow foundations
 Deep foundation

• Seismic base isolation
• Construction process of foundation
• Water proofing and drainage
By. Engr.Rahat Ullah

2
Major Building Parts

Superstructure

Substructure

Foundation
Introduction
• “The foundation of a building is that part of walls, piers and columns in
direct contact with the ground and transmitting loads to the ground.”
• Every building needs a foundation of some kind.
• Because of the variety of soil, rock, and water conditions that are

encountered below the surface of the ground and the unique demands
that buildings make upon their foundations, foundation design is a highly
specialized field combining aspects of geotechnical and civil engineering.
Purpose of foundation
• To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area so as to

bring the intensity of load within the safe bearing capacity of soil.
• To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate to avoid differential
settlement.
• To prevent the lateral movement of supporting material.
• To attain a level and firm bed for building operations.

• To increase the stability of the structure as a whole.
Super-structure

Ground Level
foundation

Distribute building load to the ground

 The size and depth of a
foundation is determined by the
structure and size of a building
it supports and the
nature and bearing capacity of
the ground supporting it.
The importance of foundations in building constructions
• Buildings are built for a purpose: schools for education, offices for work, theatres
for culture. Each is constructed for a specific purpose behind with a specific

provision of foundation.
• to be aesthetically pleasing as well as to fulfill the purpose for which it was
created.
• Foundations do not typically contribute to the architectural aesthetics of a
building. Yet, without suitable foundations, a building will not function

effectively, will be unsafe and its architectural merits will rapidly fade.
Requirements of foundation
• Structural stability
• Not impairing function of the building
• Durability
• Economy
Factors affecting design of foundation
•

Soil types and ground water table conditions.

•

Structural requirements and foundations.

•

Construction requirements .

•

Site condition and environmental factor.

•

Economy etc.
Types of foundation
• There are two basic types of foundations
1.
2.

Shallow foundation
Deep foundation

• Shallow foundation
• The foundation provided immediately below the lowest part of the structure near the ground
level, transferring load directly to the supporting soil, is known as shallow foundation.

• Shallow foundation is provided when stable soil with adequate bearing capacity occur near to
the ground level.
• Requirements
 Suitable soil bearing capacity
 Undisturbed soil or engineered fill
1) Types of Shallow foundation
a) Spread footing or open trench foundation
b) Grillage foundation

c) Raft foundation
d) Stepped foundation
e) Inverted arch foundation
f) mat foundation
g)Rubble trench foundation
Spread footing
• A spread footing foundation, which is typical in residential building, has a wider bottom
portion than the load-bearing foundation walls it supports. This wider part "spreads" the
weight of the structure over more area for greater stability.
• The design and layout of spread footings is controlled by several factors, foremost of
which is the weight (load) of the structure it will support.
• These foundations are common in residential construction that includes a basement, and
in many commercial structures. But for high rise buildings they are not sufficient.
• A spread footing which changes elevation in several places in a series of vertical "steps"
in order to follow the contours of a sloping site or accommodate changes in soil strata, is
termed a stepped footing.
Spread footing in stone masonry
Grillage foundation
• A type of foundation often used at the base of a column. It consists of one, two or more tiers of
steel beams superimposed on a layer of concrete, adjacent tiers being placed at right angles to
each other, while all tiers are encased in concrete.
• This is dependable foundation and is used in those place where the load of the structure is pretty
and bearing capacity of soil comparatively poor.
• The grillage foundation helps in distributing the load over a wider area of subsoil.
• The grillage foundation helps in avoiding deep excavations as the necessary base area is provided
for the load of transmission.
• This type of foundation generally used for heavy structure columns piers and steel stanchions etc.
Grillage foundation
Raft foundation
• Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers
the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor.
• The reinforcing bars runs normal to each other in both top and bottom

layers of steel reinforcement.
• Sometimes inverted main beams and secondary beams are used to carry
column loads that require thicker foundation slab considering economy of
the structure.
• Used generally for higher loads and prevention of excessive settlements.
Raft foundation
Inverted arch foundation
• Provided for multi storyed buildings in old times.
• However, with the advent of reinforced cement concrete construction
practice, inverted arch footing is rarely done these days.
• One of the drawbacks in this type of construction is that the end piles have
to be specially strengthened by buttresses to avoid the arch thrust tending

to rapture the pier junction.
• However, the advantage of inverted arch construction is that in soft soils
the depth of foundation is greatly reduced.
Inverted arch foundation
Stepped foundation
• A foundation constructed in a series of steps that approximate the
slope of the bearing stratum.
• The purpose is to avoid horizontal force vectors that might cause
sliding.
• Generally provided in hilly areas.
• It is a special form of strip foundation.
Stepped footing
Mat / slab foundation
• Mat-slab foundations, also called on-grade mat foundations for expansive
soils, are used to distribute heavy column and wall loads across the entire

building area, to lower the contact pressure compared to conventional
spread footings.
• Mat-slab foundations can be constructed near the ground surface, or at
the bottom of basements.
• In high-rise buildings, mat-slab foundations can be several meters
thick, with extensive reinforcing to ensure relatively uniform load transfer.
Rubble trench foundation
• is a type of foundation that uses loose stone or rubble to minimize the use

of concrete and improve drainage.
• It is considered more environmentally friendly than other types of
foundation because cement manufacturing requires the use of enormous
amounts of energy.
• However, some soil environments (such as particularly expansive or poor
load-bearing (< 1 ton/sf) soils) are not suitable for this kind of foundation.
Foundation
2) Deep foundation
Deep Foundations Purpose
transfer building loads deep into the earth

Basic types
– Drilled (& poured)

– Driven
Caisson Installation Sequence


Hole drilled with a large drill rig



Casing installed (typically)



Bell or Tip enlargement (optional)



Bottom inspected and tested



Reinforced



Concrete placement (& casing removal)
Foundation
Driven Piles
Two basic types of Piles
– End bearing pile - point
loading
– Friction pile - load transferred
by friction resistance between
the pile and the earth
Pile material





Steel; H- piles, Steel pipe
Concrete; Site cast or Precast
Wood; Timber
Composite
Foundation
Precast Concrete Plies
Site Cast Concrete Piles
Cased Piles

Uncased Piles
Factors affecting choice of foundation
• The type of construction.
• The magnitude of load.
• Drainage conditions.
• Feasibility in terms of available skilled labors and cost.
• The type and bearing capacity of soil.
• The seismic hazard and vulnerability of site to earthquake.
Construction of foundation
• Construction of foundation consists upon the following activities
•
•
•
•
•
•

Site preparation
Site layout
Excavation
Pour footing
Pour slab on grade
Pour concrete foundation walls
Site Preparation
• Remove trees and any debris
• Remove top soil (4-6” below surface)
Site Layout
• Define the boundaries by using chalk powder.
• Layout building perimeter, Establish building corners &
building perimeter.
•Use surveying instruments
Excavation
•Excavate foundation along line created.
•Excavate remainder of soil inside perimeter

•(Don’t excavate inside soil if slab on grade)
•If deep foundation, taper edges to prevent collapse
•If soil unstable, or very deep - use shoring
Pour Footings
•Construct formwork (if required)
•Install reinforcement (rebar) for footing.
•Pour concrete footings
•Smooth / finish surface
Pour Slab on Grade
•Install gravel base (to keep water off of slab)
•Install moisture barrier (to keep water off of slab)

•Install reinforcement (welded wire fabric)
•Pour concrete slab
•Finish slab surface
Pour Concrete Foundation Walls
•Construct formwork (include sleeves / doors / windows)
•Install reinforcement into formwork

•Pour concrete foundation wall
•Install anchor bolts into semi-cured concrete
Pour Concrete Foundation Walls
•Allow concrete to cure adequately (7-10 days)
•Strip forms
•Apply waterproofing
•Backfill
Protecting foundation against moisture
Waterproofing





Structures Below Ground subject to penetration of
ground water
More extreme, if below H2O table
Two basic approaches to Waterproofing
– Waterproof Membranes, or
– Drainage
– Generally - both used in tandem
Waterproofing Membranes


Materials
–
–
–
–



Liquid or Sheet (Plastic, asphaltic, synthetic rubber)
Coatings (asphaltic)
Cementitious Plasters & admixtures
Bentonite clay

Protecting boards or panels
– Protection Board
– Waterstop
» Unit of Measure - SF, in (thickness)
Drainage Methods
Stone & Perforated Pipe

Drainage Mat & Perforated Pipe
Dampproofing
Typically, a liquid asphalt
applied with a
roller or sprayer
Not an effective barrier
for water under pressure.
BUT, will prevent ground
‘moisture’ from migrating
through a wall.
Typically used in conjunction
will drainage pipe.
Underpinning
• underpinning is the process of strengthening the foundation of an existing building or other structure.
Underpinning may be necessary for a variety of reasons:
• The original foundation is simply not strong or stable enough.
• The usage of the structure has changed.
• The properties of the soil supporting the foundation may have changed (possibly through subsidence) or
were mischaracterized during design.
• The construction of nearby structures necessitates the excavation of soil supporting existing foundations.
• To increase the depth or load capacity of existing foundations to support the addition of another storey to
the building (above or below grade).
• It is more economical, due to land price or otherwise, to work on the present structure's foundation than to
build a new one.
• Earthquake, flood, drought or other natural causes have caused the structure to move, thereby requiring
stabilisation of foundation soils and/or footings.
• Underpinning may be accomplished by extending the foundation in depth or in breadth so it either rests on
a more supportive soil stratum or distributes its load across a greater area. Use of micropiles and jet grouting
are common methods in underpinning
ASSIGNMENT NO. 04
• Discuss
1. Methods of subsurface investigation.
2. Bearing capacity of soil, testing the bearing capacity of soil and various
methods for improving bearing capacity.

due date: - 12/12/2013

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Foundation

  • 1. Chapter No.04 FOUNDATIONS “Building Construction and Graphics” FALL-2013. By. Engr.Rahat Ullah 1
  • 2. outline • • • • • • • • Introduction Purpose of foundation Importance of foundation in building construction Foundation requirements Load and settlement of foundation Factors affecting foundation design Underpinning Types of foundations  Shallow foundations  Deep foundation • Seismic base isolation • Construction process of foundation • Water proofing and drainage By. Engr.Rahat Ullah 2
  • 4. Introduction • “The foundation of a building is that part of walls, piers and columns in direct contact with the ground and transmitting loads to the ground.” • Every building needs a foundation of some kind. • Because of the variety of soil, rock, and water conditions that are encountered below the surface of the ground and the unique demands that buildings make upon their foundations, foundation design is a highly specialized field combining aspects of geotechnical and civil engineering.
  • 5. Purpose of foundation • To distribute the load of the structure over a large bearing area so as to bring the intensity of load within the safe bearing capacity of soil. • To load the bearing surface at a uniform rate to avoid differential settlement. • To prevent the lateral movement of supporting material. • To attain a level and firm bed for building operations. • To increase the stability of the structure as a whole.
  • 6. Super-structure Ground Level foundation Distribute building load to the ground  The size and depth of a foundation is determined by the structure and size of a building it supports and the nature and bearing capacity of the ground supporting it.
  • 7. The importance of foundations in building constructions • Buildings are built for a purpose: schools for education, offices for work, theatres for culture. Each is constructed for a specific purpose behind with a specific provision of foundation. • to be aesthetically pleasing as well as to fulfill the purpose for which it was created. • Foundations do not typically contribute to the architectural aesthetics of a building. Yet, without suitable foundations, a building will not function effectively, will be unsafe and its architectural merits will rapidly fade.
  • 8. Requirements of foundation • Structural stability • Not impairing function of the building • Durability • Economy
  • 9. Factors affecting design of foundation • Soil types and ground water table conditions. • Structural requirements and foundations. • Construction requirements . • Site condition and environmental factor. • Economy etc.
  • 10. Types of foundation • There are two basic types of foundations 1. 2. Shallow foundation Deep foundation • Shallow foundation • The foundation provided immediately below the lowest part of the structure near the ground level, transferring load directly to the supporting soil, is known as shallow foundation. • Shallow foundation is provided when stable soil with adequate bearing capacity occur near to the ground level. • Requirements  Suitable soil bearing capacity  Undisturbed soil or engineered fill
  • 11. 1) Types of Shallow foundation a) Spread footing or open trench foundation b) Grillage foundation c) Raft foundation d) Stepped foundation e) Inverted arch foundation f) mat foundation g)Rubble trench foundation
  • 12. Spread footing • A spread footing foundation, which is typical in residential building, has a wider bottom portion than the load-bearing foundation walls it supports. This wider part "spreads" the weight of the structure over more area for greater stability. • The design and layout of spread footings is controlled by several factors, foremost of which is the weight (load) of the structure it will support. • These foundations are common in residential construction that includes a basement, and in many commercial structures. But for high rise buildings they are not sufficient. • A spread footing which changes elevation in several places in a series of vertical "steps" in order to follow the contours of a sloping site or accommodate changes in soil strata, is termed a stepped footing.
  • 13. Spread footing in stone masonry
  • 14. Grillage foundation • A type of foundation often used at the base of a column. It consists of one, two or more tiers of steel beams superimposed on a layer of concrete, adjacent tiers being placed at right angles to each other, while all tiers are encased in concrete. • This is dependable foundation and is used in those place where the load of the structure is pretty and bearing capacity of soil comparatively poor. • The grillage foundation helps in distributing the load over a wider area of subsoil. • The grillage foundation helps in avoiding deep excavations as the necessary base area is provided for the load of transmission. • This type of foundation generally used for heavy structure columns piers and steel stanchions etc.
  • 16. Raft foundation • Raft foundation is a thick concrete slab reinforced with steel which covers the entire contact area of the structure like a thick floor. • The reinforcing bars runs normal to each other in both top and bottom layers of steel reinforcement. • Sometimes inverted main beams and secondary beams are used to carry column loads that require thicker foundation slab considering economy of the structure. • Used generally for higher loads and prevention of excessive settlements.
  • 18. Inverted arch foundation • Provided for multi storyed buildings in old times. • However, with the advent of reinforced cement concrete construction practice, inverted arch footing is rarely done these days. • One of the drawbacks in this type of construction is that the end piles have to be specially strengthened by buttresses to avoid the arch thrust tending to rapture the pier junction. • However, the advantage of inverted arch construction is that in soft soils the depth of foundation is greatly reduced.
  • 20. Stepped foundation • A foundation constructed in a series of steps that approximate the slope of the bearing stratum. • The purpose is to avoid horizontal force vectors that might cause sliding. • Generally provided in hilly areas. • It is a special form of strip foundation.
  • 22. Mat / slab foundation • Mat-slab foundations, also called on-grade mat foundations for expansive soils, are used to distribute heavy column and wall loads across the entire building area, to lower the contact pressure compared to conventional spread footings. • Mat-slab foundations can be constructed near the ground surface, or at the bottom of basements. • In high-rise buildings, mat-slab foundations can be several meters thick, with extensive reinforcing to ensure relatively uniform load transfer.
  • 23. Rubble trench foundation • is a type of foundation that uses loose stone or rubble to minimize the use of concrete and improve drainage. • It is considered more environmentally friendly than other types of foundation because cement manufacturing requires the use of enormous amounts of energy. • However, some soil environments (such as particularly expansive or poor load-bearing (< 1 ton/sf) soils) are not suitable for this kind of foundation.
  • 26. Deep Foundations Purpose transfer building loads deep into the earth Basic types – Drilled (& poured) – Driven
  • 27. Caisson Installation Sequence  Hole drilled with a large drill rig  Casing installed (typically)  Bell or Tip enlargement (optional)  Bottom inspected and tested  Reinforced  Concrete placement (& casing removal)
  • 29. Driven Piles Two basic types of Piles – End bearing pile - point loading – Friction pile - load transferred by friction resistance between the pile and the earth
  • 30. Pile material     Steel; H- piles, Steel pipe Concrete; Site cast or Precast Wood; Timber Composite
  • 33. Site Cast Concrete Piles Cased Piles Uncased Piles
  • 34. Factors affecting choice of foundation • The type of construction. • The magnitude of load. • Drainage conditions. • Feasibility in terms of available skilled labors and cost. • The type and bearing capacity of soil. • The seismic hazard and vulnerability of site to earthquake.
  • 35. Construction of foundation • Construction of foundation consists upon the following activities • • • • • • Site preparation Site layout Excavation Pour footing Pour slab on grade Pour concrete foundation walls
  • 36. Site Preparation • Remove trees and any debris • Remove top soil (4-6” below surface)
  • 37. Site Layout • Define the boundaries by using chalk powder. • Layout building perimeter, Establish building corners & building perimeter. •Use surveying instruments
  • 38. Excavation •Excavate foundation along line created. •Excavate remainder of soil inside perimeter •(Don’t excavate inside soil if slab on grade) •If deep foundation, taper edges to prevent collapse •If soil unstable, or very deep - use shoring
  • 39. Pour Footings •Construct formwork (if required) •Install reinforcement (rebar) for footing. •Pour concrete footings •Smooth / finish surface
  • 40. Pour Slab on Grade •Install gravel base (to keep water off of slab) •Install moisture barrier (to keep water off of slab) •Install reinforcement (welded wire fabric) •Pour concrete slab •Finish slab surface
  • 41. Pour Concrete Foundation Walls •Construct formwork (include sleeves / doors / windows) •Install reinforcement into formwork •Pour concrete foundation wall •Install anchor bolts into semi-cured concrete
  • 42. Pour Concrete Foundation Walls •Allow concrete to cure adequately (7-10 days) •Strip forms •Apply waterproofing •Backfill
  • 44. Waterproofing    Structures Below Ground subject to penetration of ground water More extreme, if below H2O table Two basic approaches to Waterproofing – Waterproof Membranes, or – Drainage – Generally - both used in tandem
  • 45. Waterproofing Membranes  Materials – – – –  Liquid or Sheet (Plastic, asphaltic, synthetic rubber) Coatings (asphaltic) Cementitious Plasters & admixtures Bentonite clay Protecting boards or panels – Protection Board – Waterstop » Unit of Measure - SF, in (thickness)
  • 46. Drainage Methods Stone & Perforated Pipe Drainage Mat & Perforated Pipe
  • 47. Dampproofing Typically, a liquid asphalt applied with a roller or sprayer Not an effective barrier for water under pressure. BUT, will prevent ground ‘moisture’ from migrating through a wall. Typically used in conjunction will drainage pipe.
  • 48. Underpinning • underpinning is the process of strengthening the foundation of an existing building or other structure. Underpinning may be necessary for a variety of reasons: • The original foundation is simply not strong or stable enough. • The usage of the structure has changed. • The properties of the soil supporting the foundation may have changed (possibly through subsidence) or were mischaracterized during design. • The construction of nearby structures necessitates the excavation of soil supporting existing foundations. • To increase the depth or load capacity of existing foundations to support the addition of another storey to the building (above or below grade). • It is more economical, due to land price or otherwise, to work on the present structure's foundation than to build a new one. • Earthquake, flood, drought or other natural causes have caused the structure to move, thereby requiring stabilisation of foundation soils and/or footings. • Underpinning may be accomplished by extending the foundation in depth or in breadth so it either rests on a more supportive soil stratum or distributes its load across a greater area. Use of micropiles and jet grouting are common methods in underpinning
  • 49. ASSIGNMENT NO. 04 • Discuss 1. Methods of subsurface investigation. 2. Bearing capacity of soil, testing the bearing capacity of soil and various methods for improving bearing capacity. due date: - 12/12/2013