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رحمه حميد الصبحي
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رحمه حميد الصبحي

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  • 1. The Verb Phrase Rahmah Hmeed Alsobhi 089014 Instructor : Shadia Banjar
  • 2. What a verb phrase can consist of 3. VP V + ( NP ) V + ( AdvP ) V + PP e.g. reads the book snores loudly / snores very loudly looks up
  • 3.
    • Six CLASSES of a verb:
    • Transitive
    • Intransitive
    • Ditransitive
    • Intensive
    • Complex – Transitive
    • Prepositional
    • Imperative
  • 4.
    • Transitive Verb
    • Example:
    • This girl likes that dog.
    • A transitive verb: a transitive verb normally has to have a direct object to be complete.
    • (1) * This girl likes
    • Think of your own transitive verb in a sentence.
  • 5.
    • The tree diagram for the following sentence is shown as:
    • Kate hugged the baby
    transitive
  • 6.
    • The functions of the various constituents are the same as outlined before
    • (4a) Kate hugged the baby
    S P dO transitive
  • 7. Intransitive Verb
    • Example:
    • (5a) Ken snores
    • An intransitive verb: an intransitive verb is a class of verb which does not take an object. In fact an intransitive verb requires nothing else to complete the verb phrase.
    • Think of your own intransitive verb in a sentence.
  • 8.
    • The tree diagram for the following sentence is shown as:
    • p. 39 (5a) Ken snores.
    (6a) Intransitive Verb / p. 39 intransitive V NP VP N Ken snores S
  • 9.
    • The functions of this class of verb is as follows.
    • (6b) Ken snores.
    S P Intransitive Verb intransitive V NP VP N Ken snores S
  • 10. Intransitive Verb
    • Can a constituent occur after an intransitive verb?
    • There are other constituents which can occur with this class of verb.
    • However, such constituents are optional rather than obligatory.
    • Those constituents are adverbials (e.g. AdvP and PP).
    • Examples:
    • (7a) Ken snores very loudly.
    • (7b) The baby cried in the night.
    S P A S P A
  • 11. Intransitive Verb
    • There is a difference in form, but not in function.
    intransitive
  • 12. Intransitive Verb Think of your own intransitive verb with an adverbial.
    • Examples:
    • p. 40 (7a) Ken snores very loudly.
    • (7b) The baby cried in the night.
    • There is a difference in form, but not in function.
    S P A S P A
  • 13. Ditransitive Verb
    • Example:
    • (8) Ray told the children a story.
    • A ditransitive verb: a ditransitive verb requires two objects. ‘ Di ’ meaning ‘ two’. One of these objects is a direct object dO and the second one is an indirect object iO .
    • Think of your own ditransitive verb in a sentence.
  • 14.
    • The tree diagram for this type of structure is:
    • (9a) Ray told the children a story.
    Ditransitive Verb S P iO dO children a ditransitive NP DET N story
  • 15.
    • The tree diagram for this type of structure is:
    • In the following sentence, both objects ( iO
    • and dO ) are obligatory.
    • p. 42 (10) Sue gave Oxfam a jumper.
    Ditransitive Verb S P iO dO ditransitive NP DET N jumper Oxfam a
  • 16.
    • There is another way of framing the indirect
    • object.
    • p. 42 (12) Sue gave Oxfam a jumper.
    • p. 42 (13) Sue gave a jumper to Oxfam.
    Ditransitive Verb S P dO iO jumper to ditransitive PP P N Oxfam
  • 17. 05/27/10 Areej Al-Awad Intensive Verb
    • Example:
    • (22a) Sally became a doctor .
    • (22b) George is in the garden .
    • (22c) Sue seems unhappy.
    • An intensive verb:
    • an intensive verb sometimes referred to as relational, linking, or copular
    • belongs to a small group which include verbs like, be (most commonly), seem, appear, become, look and so on.
    • what these verbs have in common is that what follows the verb in a sentence relates back to what precedes the verb. (i.e. the noun-phrase subject).
    • Think of your own intensive verb in a sentence.
  • 18. Intensive Verb
    • In each of what the above examples what is given
    • after the verb relates back to the subjects,
    • describing their states.
    • The bit that comes after the verb functions as the SUBJECT COMPLEMENT . Short hand version sC .
    (22a) Sally became a doctor . (22b) George is in the garden . (22c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  • 19. Intensive Verb
    • As seen, the above examples the function is the
    • same. But what about the from ?
    (22a) Sally became a doctor . NP (22b) George is in the garden . PP (22c) Sue seems unhappy. AP (22a) Sally became a doctor . (22b) George is in the garden . (22c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  • 20. Intensive Verb
    • An intensive verb requires a sC .
    • (23a) * Sally became
    • (23b) * George is
    • (23c) * Sue seems
    • Only intensive verbs can appear with just the category AP . The verb be is the only intensive verb which can appear with any of the categories at (22) (i.e. NP , PP , AP ). For example:
    • (24a) Sally is a doctor . (NP)
    • (24b) Sally is in the garden . (PP)
    • (24c) Sally is unhappy . (AP)
  • 21. Intensive Verb
    • Only intensive verbs can appear with just the category AP . The verb be is the only intensive verb which can appear with any of the categories at (22) (i.e. NP , PP , AP ). For example:
    • (24a) Sally is a doctor . (NP)
    • (24b) Sally is in the garden . (PP)
    • (24c) Sally is unhappy . (AP)
    • and we can have:
    • (25a) Sally became a doctor . (NP)
    • (25b) Sally became unhappy . (AP)
    • but not:
    • (26a) * Sally became in the garden. (PP)
    • or
        • (26b) * Sally seems in the garden. (PP)
  • 22. Intensive Verb
    • The tree diagrams for the examples at (22) are quite straightforward.
    • (27a) (27b)
    • (27c)
    doctor
  • 23. Intensive Verb
    • In terms of function the sentence patters are
    • same.
    (28a) Sally became a doctor . (28b) George is in the garden . (28c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  • 24. Complex – transitive Verb
    • Example:
    • (29a) The voters elected Mary president.
    • (29b) Kate thought John a fool.
    • A complex – transitive verb:
    • a complex – transitive verb is the type of verb the complement relates to the object, no the subject.
    • the compliment is therefore an OBJECT COMPLIMENT and the shorthand version is oC .
    • with this type of verb, two elements are obligatory to complete the verb phrase, in the above cases, two noun phrases.
    • Think of your own complex – transitive verb in a sentence.
    S P dO oC S P dO oC
  • 25. Complex – transitive Verb
    • The tree diagram for this sentence is:
    • (29b) Kate thought John a fool.
  • 26. Complex – transitive Verb
    • Some verbs can belong to more than one verb class. Elected, for
    • instance, can also be classified as a transitive verb:
    • (29a) The voters elected Mary president.
    • (31) The voters elected Mary.
    S P dO oC S P dO
    • The oC can be any of the 3 categories:
    • NP as in The voters elected Mary president .
    • PP as in Carol put the car in the garage .
    • AP as in John mad Kate angry
    • .
  • 27. Prepositional Verb
    • Example:
    • (40a) Sally leant on the table.
    • (40b) * Sally leant
    • A prepositional verb:
    • a prepositional verb is one which requires a prepositional phrase in order to be complete.
    • verbs like glance , lean , refer , fall into this class.
    • in fact they are so closely linked with a preposition that it is easy to think of them as verbs consisting of two parts, as in glance at , lean on , refer to .
    • Think of your own prepositional verb in a sentence.
    S P pO
  • 28.