رحمه حميد الصبحي

1,801 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,801
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
63
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

رحمه حميد الصبحي

  1. 1. The Verb Phrase Rahmah Hmeed Alsobhi 089014 Instructor : Shadia Banjar
  2. 2. What a verb phrase can consist of 3. VP V + ( NP ) V + ( AdvP ) V + PP e.g. reads the book snores loudly / snores very loudly looks up
  3. 3. <ul><li>Six CLASSES of a verb: </li></ul><ul><li>Transitive </li></ul><ul><li>Intransitive </li></ul><ul><li>Ditransitive </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Complex – Transitive </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Transitive Verb </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>This girl likes that dog. </li></ul><ul><li>A transitive verb: a transitive verb normally has to have a direct object to be complete. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) * This girl likes </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own transitive verb in a sentence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The tree diagram for the following sentence is shown as: </li></ul><ul><li>Kate hugged the baby </li></ul>transitive
  6. 6. <ul><li>The functions of the various constituents are the same as outlined before </li></ul><ul><li>(4a) Kate hugged the baby </li></ul>S P dO transitive
  7. 7. Intransitive Verb <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>(5a) Ken snores </li></ul><ul><li>An intransitive verb: an intransitive verb is a class of verb which does not take an object. In fact an intransitive verb requires nothing else to complete the verb phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own intransitive verb in a sentence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The tree diagram for the following sentence is shown as: </li></ul><ul><li>p. 39 (5a) Ken snores. </li></ul>(6a) Intransitive Verb / p. 39 intransitive V NP VP N Ken snores S
  9. 9. <ul><li>The functions of this class of verb is as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>(6b) Ken snores. </li></ul>S P Intransitive Verb intransitive V NP VP N Ken snores S
  10. 10. Intransitive Verb <ul><li>Can a constituent occur after an intransitive verb? </li></ul><ul><li>There are other constituents which can occur with this class of verb. </li></ul><ul><li>However, such constituents are optional rather than obligatory. </li></ul><ul><li>Those constituents are adverbials (e.g. AdvP and PP). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>(7a) Ken snores very loudly. </li></ul><ul><li> (7b) The baby cried in the night. </li></ul>S P A S P A
  11. 11. Intransitive Verb <ul><li>There is a difference in form, but not in function. </li></ul>intransitive
  12. 12. Intransitive Verb Think of your own intransitive verb with an adverbial. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>p. 40 (7a) Ken snores very loudly. </li></ul><ul><li>(7b) The baby cried in the night. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a difference in form, but not in function. </li></ul>S P A S P A
  13. 13. Ditransitive Verb <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Ray told the children a story. </li></ul><ul><li>A ditransitive verb: a ditransitive verb requires two objects. ‘ Di ’ meaning ‘ two’. One of these objects is a direct object dO and the second one is an indirect object iO . </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own ditransitive verb in a sentence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The tree diagram for this type of structure is: </li></ul><ul><li>(9a) Ray told the children a story. </li></ul>Ditransitive Verb S P iO dO children a ditransitive NP DET N story
  15. 15. <ul><li>The tree diagram for this type of structure is: </li></ul><ul><li>In the following sentence, both objects ( iO </li></ul><ul><li>and dO ) are obligatory. </li></ul><ul><li>p. 42 (10) Sue gave Oxfam a jumper. </li></ul>Ditransitive Verb S P iO dO ditransitive NP DET N jumper Oxfam a
  16. 16. <ul><li>There is another way of framing the indirect </li></ul><ul><li>object. </li></ul><ul><li>p. 42 (12) Sue gave Oxfam a jumper. </li></ul><ul><li>p. 42 (13) Sue gave a jumper to Oxfam. </li></ul>Ditransitive Verb S P dO iO jumper to ditransitive PP P N Oxfam
  17. 17. 05/27/10 Areej Al-Awad Intensive Verb <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>(22a) Sally became a doctor . </li></ul><ul><li>(22b) George is in the garden . </li></ul><ul><li>(22c) Sue seems unhappy. </li></ul><ul><li>An intensive verb: </li></ul><ul><li>an intensive verb sometimes referred to as relational, linking, or copular </li></ul><ul><li>belongs to a small group which include verbs like, be (most commonly), seem, appear, become, look and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>what these verbs have in common is that what follows the verb in a sentence relates back to what precedes the verb. (i.e. the noun-phrase subject). </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own intensive verb in a sentence. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Intensive Verb <ul><li>In each of what the above examples what is given </li></ul><ul><li>after the verb relates back to the subjects, </li></ul><ul><li>describing their states. </li></ul><ul><li>The bit that comes after the verb functions as the SUBJECT COMPLEMENT . Short hand version sC . </li></ul>(22a) Sally became a doctor . (22b) George is in the garden . (22c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  19. 19. Intensive Verb <ul><li>As seen, the above examples the function is the </li></ul><ul><li>same. But what about the from ? </li></ul>(22a) Sally became a doctor . NP (22b) George is in the garden . PP (22c) Sue seems unhappy. AP (22a) Sally became a doctor . (22b) George is in the garden . (22c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  20. 20. Intensive Verb <ul><li>An intensive verb requires a sC . </li></ul><ul><li>(23a) * Sally became </li></ul><ul><li>(23b) * George is </li></ul><ul><li>(23c) * Sue seems </li></ul><ul><li>Only intensive verbs can appear with just the category AP . The verb be is the only intensive verb which can appear with any of the categories at (22) (i.e. NP , PP , AP ). For example: </li></ul><ul><li>(24a) Sally is a doctor . (NP) </li></ul><ul><li>(24b) Sally is in the garden . (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>(24c) Sally is unhappy . (AP) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Intensive Verb <ul><li>Only intensive verbs can appear with just the category AP . The verb be is the only intensive verb which can appear with any of the categories at (22) (i.e. NP , PP , AP ). For example: </li></ul><ul><li>(24a) Sally is a doctor . (NP) </li></ul><ul><li>(24b) Sally is in the garden . (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>(24c) Sally is unhappy . (AP) </li></ul><ul><li>and we can have: </li></ul><ul><li>(25a) Sally became a doctor . (NP) </li></ul><ul><li>(25b) Sally became unhappy . (AP) </li></ul><ul><li>but not: </li></ul><ul><li>(26a) * Sally became in the garden. (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(26b) * Sally seems in the garden. (PP) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Intensive Verb <ul><li>The tree diagrams for the examples at (22) are quite straightforward. </li></ul><ul><li>(27a) (27b) </li></ul><ul><li>(27c) </li></ul>doctor
  23. 23. Intensive Verb <ul><li>In terms of function the sentence patters are </li></ul><ul><li>same. </li></ul>(28a) Sally became a doctor . (28b) George is in the garden . (28c) Sue seems unhappy. S P sC S P sC S P sC
  24. 24. Complex – transitive Verb <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>(29a) The voters elected Mary president. </li></ul><ul><li>(29b) Kate thought John a fool. </li></ul><ul><li>A complex – transitive verb: </li></ul><ul><li>a complex – transitive verb is the type of verb the complement relates to the object, no the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>the compliment is therefore an OBJECT COMPLIMENT and the shorthand version is oC . </li></ul><ul><li>with this type of verb, two elements are obligatory to complete the verb phrase, in the above cases, two noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own complex – transitive verb in a sentence. </li></ul>S P dO oC S P dO oC
  25. 25. Complex – transitive Verb <ul><li>The tree diagram for this sentence is: </li></ul><ul><li>(29b) Kate thought John a fool. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Complex – transitive Verb <ul><li>Some verbs can belong to more than one verb class. Elected, for </li></ul><ul><li>instance, can also be classified as a transitive verb: </li></ul><ul><li>(29a) The voters elected Mary president. </li></ul><ul><li>(31) The voters elected Mary. </li></ul>S P dO oC S P dO <ul><li>The oC can be any of the 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><li>NP as in The voters elected Mary president . </li></ul><ul><li>PP as in Carol put the car in the garage . </li></ul><ul><li>AP as in John mad Kate angry </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Prepositional Verb <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>(40a) Sally leant on the table. </li></ul><ul><li>(40b) * Sally leant </li></ul><ul><li>A prepositional verb: </li></ul><ul><li>a prepositional verb is one which requires a prepositional phrase in order to be complete. </li></ul><ul><li>verbs like glance , lean , refer , fall into this class. </li></ul><ul><li>in fact they are so closely linked with a preposition that it is easy to think of them as verbs consisting of two parts, as in glance at , lean on , refer to . </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your own prepositional verb in a sentence. </li></ul>S P pO

×