Multi-word verbsThe two main categories of multi-word verbs: phrasal verbs, prepositional verbs.They consist of a LEXICAL VERB + PARTICLE.A particle – a neutral designation for the overlapping categories of adverb and preposition that are used in such combinations.In PHRASAL VERBS the particle is an adverb (e.g. drink up, find out).In PREPOSITIONAL VERBS the particle is a preposition (e.g. dispose of, cope with).In PHRASAL-PREPOSITIONAL VERBS there are two particles: an adverb + preposition (e.g. put up with)
Intransitive phrasal verbsIntransitive phrasal verbs consist of a verb + an adverb:(1) The plane has just touched down.(2) He is playing around.(3) How are you getting on?(4) The plane has now taken off.(5) She turned up unexpectedly.(6) The tank blew up.(7) The two girls have fallen out. (=“quarreled’)
Intransitive phrasal verbsIn phrasal verbs like give in (=“surrender”) or blow up (=“explode”), we cannot predict the meaning of the idiomatic combination from the meaning of verb and particle in isolation.In free combinations (e.g. walk past) we can do so.Also, the semantic separability of the two parts in free combinations is shown by possible substitutions: for walk in walk past we can substitute run, trot, swim, fly, etc.; and for past we can substitute by, in, through, over, etc.In other cases, the adverb in a free combination has an intensifying force (e.g. chatter away), or an aspectual force (e.g. drink up).
Intransitive phrasal verbsThere are also syntactic signs of cohesion between the verb and the adverb in phrasal verbs – normally, the particle of a phrasal verb cannot be separated from the lexical verb (*She turned right up), but this separation is possible in free combinations (Go straight on).Also, the adverb can be fronted in free combinations (Out came the sun; Up you come), but not in phrasal verbs (*Up blew the tank; *Out he passed – pass out = “faint”)
Transitive phrasal verbsWhen phrasal verbs take a direct object, we call them transitive phrasal verbs:(8) Shall I put away the dishes?(9) Find out if they are coming.(10) She’s bringing up two children.(11) Someone turned on the light.(12) They have called off the strike.(13) I can’t make out what he wants.(14) I’ve handed in my resignation.
Transitive phrasal verbsSome phrasal verbs, such as give in and blow up, can be either intransitive or transitive. In some cases, e.g. give in, there is a difference in meaning (give in, intransitive = “surrender”; give in, transitive = “hand over to the proper authorities), whereas in others, e.g. blow up, there is not.As with free combinations of the same pattern, the particle can generally either precede or follow the direct object:(15) They turned on the light. ~ They turned the light on.But when the object is a personal pronoun, the particle must usually follow the object:(16) *They turned on it. ~ They turned it on.
Transitive phrasal verbsTransitive phrasal verbs are also distinguished semantically from free combinations of verb and adverb.Phrasal verb take in (=“deceive) vs. free combination take in (=“bring inside”), where the two parts preserve their separate meanings:(17) She took in her parents.(18) She took in the box.If the transitive phrasal verb is fully idiomatic, the particle cannot normally be separated from the lexical verb by anything except the object, not even by an intensifier such as right:(19) She brought the girls right up. (free combination = “led them up the stairs”, for example)(20) She brought the girls up. (phrasal verb = “reared them”)
Type I prepositional verbsA type I prepositional verb consists of a lexical verb + a preposition with which it is semantically and/or syntactically associated:(21) Look at these pictures.(22) I don’t care for Jane’s parties.(23) We must go into the problem.(24) Can you cope with the work?(25) I approve of their action.The NP following the preposition is a PREPOSITIONAL OBJECT, a term that suggests an analogy with the term DIRECT OBJECT:(26) Look at the pictures.(27) Examine the pictures.
Type I prepositional verbsWe can easily insert an adverbial between the lexical verb and the preposition:(27) Many people looked disdainfully at the picture.However, insertion between verb and direct object is usually avoided unless the object is long:(28) ?*Many people examined disdainfully the picture.
The distinction betweenprepositional verbs and freecombinations (verb + preposition)(I) the possibility of making the prepositional object the subject of a corresponding passive clause. In this prepositional passive, the preposition is stranded in its post-verbal position:call on = “visit”(29) We called on the dean.(29a) The dean was called on.(30) We called after lunch.(30a) *Lunch was called after.
The distinction betweenprepositional verbs and freecombinations (verb + preposition)(II) wh-questions eliciting the prepositional object are formed with the pronouns who(m) and what (as with direct objects) rather than with adverbial questions:(31) John called on her. ~ Who(m) did John call on?(32) John looked for it. ~ What did John look for?In free combinations, we use adverbial questions:(33) John called from the office. ~ Where did John call from?(34) John called after lunch. ~ When did John call?Some prepositional verbs allow both types of wh-question:(35) She died of pneumonia. ~ How did she die? / ~What did she die of?
The distinction betweenprepositional verbs and phrasalverbsType I prepositional verbs resemble transitive phrasal verbs superficially, but the differences are both syntactic and phonological.The contrast is exemplified for the prepositional verb call on (“visit”) and the phrasal verb call up (“summon” = sazvati, okupiti).(a) The particle of a prepositional verb must precede the prepositional object (unless the particle is stranded), but the particle of a phrasal verb can generally precede or follow the direct object:(36) She called on her friends. ~ *She called her friends on.(37) She called up her friends. ~ She called her friends up.
The distinction betweenprepositional verbs and phrasalverbs(b) When the object is a personal pronoun, the pronoun follows the particle of a prepositional verb, but precedes the particle of a phrasal verb:(38) She called on them. ~ *She called them on.(39) She called them up. ~ *She called up them.(c) An adverb can often be inserted between verb and particle in prepositional verbs, but not in phrasal verbs:(40) She called angrily on her friends.(41) *She called angrily up her friends.
The distinction betweenprepositional verbs and phrasalverbs(d) The particle of a phrasal verb cannot precede a relative pronoun or wh-interrogative:(42) the friends on whom she called ~ On which friends did she call?(43) *the friends up whom she called ~ *Up which friends did she call?(e) the particle of a phrasal verb is normally stressed, and in final position normally bears the nuclear tone, whereas the particle of a prepositional verb is normally unstressed and has the ‘tail’ of the nuclear tone that falls on the lexical verb:(44) Which friends did she call UP? (45) Which friends did she CALL on?
Type II prepositional verbsThese verbs are ditransitive verbs (have two objects). They are followed by two NPs, normally separated by the preposition: the second NP is the prepositional object:(46) He deprived the peasants of their land.(47) This clothing will protect you from the worst weather.(48) Jenny thanked us for the present.(49) May I remind you of our agreement?(50) They have provided the child with a good education.The first object becomes the subject in the corresponding passive clause:(51) The gang robbed her of her necklace. ~ She was robbed of her necklace (by the gang).
Type II prepositional verbs2 minor subtypes of type II prepositional verbs. In these verbs, the first object is part of the idiomatic combination:(a) make a mess of, make allowance for, take care of, pay attention to, take advantage of. It allows a second passive in which the prepositional object becomes subject:(52) They made a terrible mess of the house.(52a) A terrible mess has been made of the house.(52b) The house has been made a terrible mess of.
Type II prepositional verbs(b) catch sight of, keep pace with, give way to, lose touch with, give rise to. Only the prepositional object can become the passive subject, though it is considered somewhat clumsy.(53) They suddenly caught sight of the lifeboat.(53a) The lifeboat was suddenly caught sight of.
Phrasal-prepositional verbsPhrasal-prepositional verbs consist of a LEXICAL VERB + ADVERB + PREPOSITION.(I) Type I phrasal-prepositional verbs have only a prepositional object:(54) We are all looking forward to your party on Saturday.(55) He had to put up with a lot of teasing at school.(56) He thinks he can get away with everything.The prepositional passive is possible:(57) They could not put up with these tantrums any longer.(57a) These tantrums could not be put up with any longer.(58) Their neigbours looked down on them.(58a) They were looked down on by their neighbours.
Phrasal-prepositional verbs(II) Type II phrasal-prepositional verbs are ditransitive verbs. They require 2 objects. The second object is the prepositional object:(59) Don’t take it out on me!(60) We put our success down to hard work.(61) I’ll let you in on a secret.Only the first object can be made passive subject with these verbs:(62) We can put our success down to hard work.(62a) Our success can be put down to hard work.
Other multi-word verbconstructions(a) VERB-ADJECTIVE COMBINATIONS: break even, plead guilty, lie low, cut (the trip) short(b) VERB-VERB COMBINATIONS: in these combinations the second verb is nonfinite, and may be either an infinitive (make do with, make (N) do, let (N) go, let (N) be), or a participle (put paid to, get rid of, have done with, leave (N) standing, get going), with or without a following preposition.(III) VERBS WITH TWO PREPOSITIONS (struggle with N for N, compete with N for N, apply to N for N, develop from N into N): (63) It developed from a small club into a mass organization in three years.Normally either one or both PPs can be omitted.
Active and passiveThe distinction between active and passive applies only to sentences where the verb is transitive.The difference between the active voice and the passive voice involves both the VP and the clause as a whole.In the VP, the passive adds a form of the auxiliary be followed by the –ed participle of the main verb:build → is builthas built → has been builtmay be building → may be being built
Active and passiveAt the clause level, changing from active to passive has the following results:(a) the active subject, if retained, becomes the PASSIVE AGENT;(b) the active object becomes the PASSIVE SUBJECT;(c) the preposition by is inserted before the agent:(1) The butler murdered the detective.(1a) The detective was murdered by the butler.The prepositional phrase (AGENT BY-PHRASE) of passive sentences is an optional element and is commonly omitted.
Get-passiveGet is frequently used with the passive in informal English: get caught, get dressed, get run over.It often conveys the connotation that the referent of the subject has some responsibility for the action.
A clause as the objectThe change to passive is highly restricted if the active object is a clause. It becomes acceptable when the clause is extraposed and replaced by anticipatory it:(2) They thought that she was attractive.(2a) It was thought that she was attractive.
Middle verbsSome stative transitive verbs (=middle verbs) (have, fit, suit, resemble, equal, mean, contain, hold, comprise, lack) normally occur only in the active:(3) They have a nice house. → *A nice house is had by them.(4) The auditorium holds 500 people. → *500 people are held by the auditorium.(5) He lacks confidence. → *Confidence is lacked by him.
Phrasal and prepositional verbs inthe passive (see SLIDES 16-20)(6) They blew up the bridge. → The bridge was blown up. (phrasal verb in the passive)(7) We approve of their action. → Their action is approved of. (prepositional verb)
Uses of the passiveIn sentences where there is a choice between active and passive, active is the norm.Speakers or writers use the passive for the following reasons (more than one reason may apply) (the reasons I-IV illustrate the uses of the passive without the agent by-phrase):(I) we do not know the identity of the agent of the action:(8) Many lifeboats were launched from the Titanic only partly filled.(II) we want to avoid identifying the agent because we do not want to assign or accept responsibility:(9) My letter has not yet been answered.(10) A mistake has been made in calculating your change.
Uses of the passive(III) we feel there is no need for mentioning the agent because the identification is unimportant or obvious from the context:(11) The small thin pieces of metal at the sides are to protect the appliance during handling and may be discarded.(12) Nowadays sleeping sickness can usually be cured if it is detected early enough.(IV) In scientific and technical writing, writers often use the passive to avoid the constant repetition of the subject I or we and to put emphasis on processes and experimental procedures. This use of the passive helps to give the writing the objective tone that the writers wish to convey.(13) The subject was blindfolded and a pencil was placed in the left hand.
Uses of the passive(V) To put emphasis on the agent of the action(VI) To avoid what would otherwise be a long active subject(VII) to retain the same subject in later parts of the sentenceThe following sentence exemplifies a combination of the reasons V-VII for using the passive:(14) As a cat moves, it is kept informed of its movements not only by its eyes, but also by messages from its pads and elsewhere in its skin, its organs of balance, and its sense organs of joints and muscles.