A sentence is a grammatical unit consisting
of one or more words that bear minimal
syntactic relation to the words that precede
or follow it
Sentences are more knowable than thoughts
We discuss about Semantics Roles
We walk in the park
A proposition is something abstract but
A proposition can be seen as consisting of a
predicate and various phrases(referring
A proposition can be expresesed in different
Our walk in the park => we enjoyed our walk in
We discuss about semantics roles => we don’t
understand about semantics role so we discuss it
Verb valency or valence refers to the number of
arguments controlled by a verbal predicate
Valency refers to the capacity of a verb to take a
specific number and type of arguments (noun
An account of the number of arguments that a
predicate has is called the valency of the predicate.
Valency theory is a description of the semantic
potential of predicates in terms of the number and
types of arguments which may co-occur with them.
It is snowing => valency zero
My brother snores => valency one
Chris is making an omelet => valency two
Subject => it
Verb => snow
Subject does not correspond to anything in
the underlying proposition.
We say that snow is a zero-argument verb.
Subject => my brother
Verb => snores
This sentence has a subject but n o object
They are intransitive verbs or, one-argument
The dog is sleeping
Subject => Chris
Verb => make
Object => an omelet
Most verbs take a subject and an object,
they are two arguments predicates.
One of them is “make”
The cat killed a rat
We need to take account not only of how many
arguments a verb may have but also how
many it must have
Agnes wrote her mother a letter
It is possible to omit “her mother” or “a
letter” or both of them and say just “Agnes
wrote a letter” or “Agnes wrote (to) her
mother” or “Agnes wrote”.
The sentence is less informative when it has
fewer arguments, but it is a legitimate
sentence and the meaning of write does not
A. We ate lunch (in the kitchen)
B. We ate (in the kitchen)
The verb “eat” is different. We see that
“a” contains more specific information
than “b”, but the meaning of “ate” is the
The predicate “eat” is inherently two-
argument because the action “eat” refers
to is two-argument.
if you eat, you eat something, but in
English we can use the predicate “eat”
without mention what is eaten.
a. Maureen bathed the baby (in the tub)
b. Maureen bathed (in the tub)
Sentence “a” has two obvious arguments:
Maureen, the actor and the baby the
In sentence “b” the argument Maureen
could be said to have two roles, actor and
affected, since it is Maureen who bathes
and Maureen who gets bathed.