History Of Mobile Learning - mLearn 2007 doctoral consortium Oct 2007

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  • History Of Mobile Learning - mLearn 2007 doctoral consortium Oct 2007

    1. 1. A Short History of Mobile Learning and some issues to consider Mike Sharples Learning Sciences Research Institute University of Nottingham www.nottingham.ac.uk/lsri
    2. 2. Visions of Mobile Learning, 1963 <ul><li>As Antarctic glaciers went it was a fairly large one…The sad masses of rock were heavily scarred where the ice flow had once rubbed them, for in this year of 1994, the glacier was smaller than it had been even a century ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Jed grinned up at his father. “Now for a bit of real work,” he said. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You don’t know what real work is,” his father smiled. “When I was a boy, back in the nineteen-sixties, I’d have been at school at your age… in those days, anything you wanted to learn, you had to get into your own head. We didn’t have miniputers in those days. Computers had been invented, and they were getting smaller, but it wasn’t until the great developments in microtechnology in the seventies that portable computers were made”. </li></ul>‘ The Thing Under the Glacier’, Brian Aldiss, Daily Express Science Annual ,1963
    3. 3. Visions of Mobile Learning, 1963 <ul><li>Instinctively [Jed] switched over to his miniputer to review the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a simple thing to do. Many of the parts of the miniputer were synthetic bio-chemical units, their “controls” built into Jed’s aural cavity; he “switched on” by simple neural impulse. At once the mighty resources of the machine, equal to the libraries of the world, billowed like a curtain on the fringes of his brain…Its “voice” came into his mind, filling it with relevant words, figures, and pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>“… Of all continents, the Antarctic has been hardest hit by ice.” </li></ul><ul><li>As it spoke, it flashed one of its staggeringly vivid pictures into Jed’s mind. Howling through great forests, slicing through grasslands, came cold winds. The landscape grew darker, more barren; snow fell. </li></ul>The Thing Under the Glacier, Brian Aldiss, 1963
    4. 4. ‘ Micro-ear’ invisible earpiece ‘ Micro-optical’ high resolution display ‘ Brain-gate’ neural interface
    5. 5. Visions of Mobile Learning, 1972 <ul><li>“ Zap, with a beautiful flash and appropriate noise, Jimmy’s spaceship disintegrated. Beth had won Spacewar again. The nine year olds were lying on the grass of a park near their home, their DynaBooks hooked together to allow each of them a viewscreen into the space world where Beth’s ship was now floating triumphantly alone.” </li></ul>Alan Kay, A Personal Computer for Children of all Ages, Proceedings of the ACM National Conference , Boston Aug. 1972
    6. 6. Visions of Mobile Learning, 1972 <ul><li>“ Jimmy connected his DynaBook to his class’s LIBLINK and became heir to the thought and knowledge of ages past…It was like taking an endless voyage through a space that knew no bounds.” </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Dynabook <ul><li>Carry anywhere device </li></ul><ul><li>No larger than a notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh less than 4 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>Flat panel display, quality similar to a book </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Store at least 500 book pages, or several hours of audio </li></ul><ul><li>High bandwidth communication </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to wireless global network </li></ul><ul><li>Rechargable batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Cost under $500 </li></ul><ul><li>Kay, 1972 </li></ul>Mockup of Dynabook Xerox Alto computer IBM 370 computer HP 35 calculator
    8. 8. Evolution of Hardware, Software and Communications <ul><li>Dynabook idea </li></ul><ul><li>Alto </li></ul><ul><li>Smalltalk </li></ul>1970’s 1980’s Xerox Star Apple Lisa Apple Macintosh C++ 1990’s Windows PCs Laptop PCs PDAs Java 2000’s Wireless PDAs Arpanet Ethernet TCP/IP Analog cellular radio Worldwide web Digital cellular radio Wireless LAN CORBA Bluetooth
    9. 9. Education design for the Dynabook <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Highly interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Learning through play </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Informal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Anytime anywhere learning </li></ul>
    10. 10. Evolution of learner-centred education <ul><li>Discovery Learning </li></ul>1970’s 1980’s Situated learning Constructivist learning Collaborative learning 1990’s Problem-based learning Lifelong learning Social-constructivist learning 2000’s Informal learning Contextual learning Ambient learning
    11. 11. HandLeR: Handheld Learning Resource Sharples, Corlett & Westmancott, 2002 <ul><li>University of Birmingham </li></ul><ul><li>Personal learning aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field trips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia note taking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless and phone link </li></ul><ul><li>Pen input </li></ul><ul><li>Capture notes, organise as concept map, share with other students </li></ul>HandLeR: Handheld Learning Resource
    12. 12. HandLeR project
    13. 13. MOBIlearn <ul><li>Worldwide European-led project </li></ul><ul><li>24 partner organisations across Europe, Israel, US, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on learning outside the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art gallery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-based MBA course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trials of Art Gallery scenario in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence and Nottingham Castle Gallery </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>It’s the learner that’s mobile </li></ul><ul><li>How learning is interwoven with everyday life </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile learning can both complement and conflict with formal education </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of context, constructed by learners through interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical issues: privacy, ownership </li></ul>MOBIlearn: what we know now that we didn’t at the start (Final project meeting informal discussion)
    15. 15. 3 C’s of Effective Learning <ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful learning is constructive process (Brown & Campione, 1996) that involves seeking solutions to problems and relating new experiences to existing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central to learning is conversation, with teachers, with other learners, with ourselves as we question our concepts, and with the world as we carry out experiments and explorations and interpret the results (Pask, 1976) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is most successful when we are in control, carrying out an active and continuing cycle of experimentation and reflection (Kolb, 1984) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: EduNova <ul><li>MCSCL developed by Pontificia Universidad Cat ólica de Chile </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless handheld computers </li></ul><ul><li>Tested in schools, teacher training, university students </li></ul><ul><li>Significant differences in learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Trials in other countries including UK (Wolverhampton) </li></ul>
    17. 17. S 2 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 1 S 3 S 2 S 1 S 3 <ul><li>Computer-supported collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile computer-supported collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face collaboration </li></ul>
    18. 18. 4 . The teacher can monitor and discuss the individual and group learning activity.
    19. 19. ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¡¡Pónganse de acuerdo!! OK ¡¡Pónganse de acuerdo!! OK ¡¡Pónganse de acuerdo!! OK
    20. 20. ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¿ Qué son los ácidos nucleicos? Cadenas de ADN y ARN formadas por 4 nucleótidos Cadenas de aminoácidos unidos en distintas secuencias No sé Cadena de monosacáridos unidos por enlaces glucosídicos ¡¡CORRECTA!! OK ¡¡CORRECTA!! OK ¡¡CORRECTA!! OK
    21. 22. PI: Personal Inquiry <ul><li>Support for inquiry science learning between formal and informal settings, KS3 </li></ul><ul><li>School for introducing and framing issues, and planning inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Outside, home and science centres for semi-structured investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students design the methods of inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In classroom, at home, with peers, with experts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Scripted’ inquiry learning (dynamic lesson plans supported by mobile devices) </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. 1974 1997 2002 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
    23. 24. Big Issues in Mobile Learning Kaleidoscope European Workshop, Nottingham, June 2006 <ul><li>What is mobile learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Does mobile learning work? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you evaluate mobile learning? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you resolve the tensions between informal mobile learning and formal school learning </li></ul><ul><li>Who should own the technology, and the learning? </li></ul>

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