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Internet for Development Presentation Transcript

  • 1.
    • Roberto Polillo
    • Department of Informatics, Systems and Communication
    • University of Milano Bicocca
    Internet for development
  • 2. The discipline: ICT4D
    • Information and Communication Technologies for Development “ The application of ICT within the field of socio-economic development, international development and human rights ” (Wikipedia)
    • Interdisciplinariety, different approaches, philosophies, goals, ...
    • We bring with ourselves our story, …
  • 3. Agenda
    • What is development – and how to measure it
    • ICT penetration and digital divide
    • Evolution of the Internet as a global resource
    • Internet for development: a quantic gap
    • Case studies
    • Some conclusions
  • 4. 1. What is development – and how to measure it
  • 5. What does it mean "development"?
    • Development means different things to different people
    • At its core, it involves concepts of "progress" and "growth"
    • Development is a multi-dimensional entity, involving empowerment, participation, ….
    • It cannot be simply equated to the growth of GNP or personal purchasing power…
  • 6. However you measure it…
    • A world of differences
  • 7. GDP per capita, 2010 Blue: above world GDP per capita (USD 10,700, purchasing power parity) Orange: below world GDP per capita Source: IMF International Monetary Fund, from Wikipedia
  • 8. Country classification by yearly GNI per capita (World Bank, 2008) 48.000 35.500 (In 2010, tresholds increased by 3%) ≤ 975 ≤ 3.855 ≤ 11.905 > 11.906 GNI per capita (US$)
  • 9. Country classification by yearly GNI per capita (World Bank): 2010 US$ 1,005 US$ 3,975 US$ 12,275 Low income countries Lower middle income countries Upper middle income countries High income countries USA Italy US$ 50,000
  • 10. L east D eveloped C ountries
    • In 2010:
    • 49 countries
    • 833 ml people
    LDC in 2007, from Wikipedia
    • LDC defined by UN, based on 3 criteria:
    • Low income
    • Human resources weakness
    • Economic vulnerability
  • 11. Almost half the world live on less than $2.50 a day http://www.globalissues.org
  • 12. HDI : H uman D evelopment I ndex
    • Developed by UNDP (United Nations Development Programme, www.undp.org ), from 1992
    • Covering almost 200 countries
    • Three basic dimensions :
      • HEALTH : Life expectancy at birth
      • EDUCATION : Education Index ( various indices, changed in 2011)
      • INCOME : Per-capita GNI Index
  • 13. HDI divide in 2011 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index
  • 14. Other indicators Life expectancy Poverty rates Unenployment rates Disposable income Education levels … Natural resources Pollution & waste Human health … Satisfaction with life Health conditions Standard of living Family life Jobs …. www.beyond-gdp.eu
  • 15. 2. ICT penetration and digital divide
  • 16. What a decade!
    • The first decade of the new millennium saw extraordinary progress in ICT – globally:
      • Global mobile cellular penetration
      • Global internet penetration
      • Enormous technological improvements in ICT
      • The Internet as a pervasive resource
    • The lag between developed and developing world can be considered to be less that 10 years – on average
  • 17. (can be downloaded from the net at no cost) A fundamental source, highly recommended: www.itu.org
  • 18. The global picture
    • Mobile
      • With 5.9 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions, global penetration reaches 87%, and 79% in the developing world
      • In LDCs two thirds of people have cellular coverage and mobile cellular penetration has reached 34% - up from 5% five years earlier
    • Internet
      • One third of the world population is online
      • 45% of Internet users are below the age of 25
      • 25% of internet users are in China
    Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
  • 19. The global growth, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 12% 2011 est: 86.7%
  • 20. Mobile cellular penetration growth Source: ITU
  • 21. Mobile cellular subscription divide, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 6 yrs lag
  • 22. Mobile cellular penetration by 2011* http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States Much higher that the USA penetration in 2004 (43%)
  • 23. Rural population covered by a mobile signal, 2002-2008 ITU, "Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review", 2010
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Internet Users divide, 2000-2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011 This is higher than global fixed (16%) and mobile (12%) telephone penetration in 2000 Lag about 11 years
  • 27. Internet users growth
    • In developing countries, 30% of those under 25 use the Internet
    Source: ITU Fact and figures, 2011
  • 28. Internet penetration, by region, 2011* http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/
  • 29. Global bandwidth growth 7x in 5 years
  • 30. Broadband: what is it?
    • "Broadband" is a technology neutral term, often used as a marketing buzzword, with different meanings
    • ITU defines broadband internet access as a [fixed or wireless] public access to the internet at a downstream speed equal or greater than 256 Kbps (March 2010)
    • Broadband is supported by different technologies with different speed
  • 31. Broadband requirements: examples
    • YouTube:
      • min 500 Kbps; optimal: 1 Mbps or higher
    • Skype:
      • voice call: 100 Kbps recommended
      • video call: 128-500 Kbps
      • group video call (3 people): 512 Kbps – 2 Mbps download
    • Streaming movies :
      • 2,5 Mbps suggested
      • 10 Mbps suggested for HD
  • 32. Download time vs bandwidth
  • 33. Bandwidth requirements for different applications Source: www.scotland.gov.uk / GEN/Targeting innovation
  • 34. Broadband on Europe Digital Agenda
    • By 2013:
      • bring basic broadband to all Europeans
    • By 2020:
      • ensure that all Europeans have access to internet speed of above 30 Mbps and
      • 50% or more European households subscribe to Internet connections above 100 Mbps
  • 35. Broadband divide Fixed broadband subscribers Mobile broadband subscribers Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 36. Cost: IPB ( I CT P rice B asket )
    • Developed by ITU to compare the price of TLC in different countries
    • Based on a mix of use using fixed telephone, mobile cellulare and fixed broadband
    • Measured in % to the average monthly income
    • 2010: Ranges from 0,2% (Monaco) to 71,6% (Niger) Italy: 0,9% (28th); USA: 0,6% (12th)
  • 37. IPB index Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 38. Price divide by IPB values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 39. Price divide by IPB values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 40. Ultra-low cost mobiles
  • 41. IDI ( I CT D evelopment I ndex)
    • Developed by ITU to measure the level and evolution over time of ICT in different countries, and to measure the digital divide
    • Based on a 3 stage model of ICT development
    • Computed for 159 countries, 2002, 2007 & 2008
  • 42. The 3 stages model of IDI 1 2 3 Access sub-index Use sub-index Skills sub-index 11 indicators IDI
  • 43. IDI components Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2010 Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2009
  • 44. Digital divide by IDI values (2010) Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 45. WSIS
    • W orld S ummit on I nformation S ociety (held Geneva, 2003 and Tunis, 2005) to discuss ICT4D issues
    • The Geneva Action Plan of Action identified 10 targets to be achieved by 2015
    • In 2010, ITU issued the report "Monitoring the WSIS targets. A mid term review", 2010 (available on the net)
  • 46. The WSIS 10 targets (2003-5)
    • 1. To connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points
    • 2. To connect universities , colleges, secondary schools and primary schools with ICTs
    • 3. To connect scientific and research centres with ICTs
    • 4. To connect public libraries , cultural centres, museums, post offices and archives with ICTs
    • 5. To connect health centres and hospitals with ICTs
    • 6. To connect all local and central government departments and establish websites
    • and e-mail addresses
    • 7. To adapt all primary and secondary school curricula to meet the challenges of the
    • information society, taking into account national circumstances
    • 8. To ensure that all of the world ’ s population have access to television and radio services
    • 9. To encourage the development of content and put in place technical conditions in
    • order to facilitate the presence and use of all world languages on the Internet
    • 10. To ensure that more than half the world ’ s inhabitants have access to ICTs within their reach
  • 47. 3. Evolution of the Internet as a global resource
  • 48. Evolution of ICT paradigms Mainframe computing Client-server computing Cloud computing 1965 1985 2005+
  • 49. Evolution of the Internet 1995+
    • Company web sites
    • Web portals
    • Search engines
    • E-commerce
    • Web as an interface
    • … .
    HYPERTEXT, eCOMMERCE 2005+
    • Blogs
    • Social networks
    • UGC
    • Cooperative creation
    • Sharing
    • Reusable contents
    SOCIAL MEDIA 1985+
    • E-mail
    • File transfer
    • Newsgroups
    • … .
    COMMUNICATION NETWORK
  • 50. Time person of the year Christmas 2006 Christmas 2010 Christmas 2011
  • 51. Evoluzione di Internet 2010+ Mobile access
  • 52. Internet for development E-government E-entertainment E-inclusion Broadband Internet access E-health E-education E-commerce E-communication
  • 53. Broadband as an enabler
    • Telehealth & telemedicine: broadband can facilitate provision of medical care to unserved and underserved population through remote diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and consultation with specialists (telehealth & telemedicine)
    • Education, culture & entertainment : broadband can overcome geographical and financial barriers to provide access to a wide range of educational, cultural and recreational opportunities and resources
    • Economic development / E-commerce: broadband can promote economic development and revitalization through electronic commerce by creating new jobs and attracting new industries; providing access to regional, national, and worldwide markets
    • E-government: e-government can help streamline people's interaction with government agencies, and provide information about government policies, procedures, benefits and programs
    • Public safety and homeland security: broadband can help protect the public by facilitating and promoting public safety information and procedures Broadband communication services : broadband provides access to new telecommunications technologies such as VOIP
    • People with disabilities: …
    www.broadband.gov
  • 54. Example: E-health
    • Electronic health records : enabling the communication of patient data between different healthcare professionals
    • Telemedicine : physical and psychological treatments at a distance
    • Consumer health information: use of online resources on medical topics by healthy individuals or patients
    • Health knowledge management : best practice guidelines, online resources for the healthcare professionals, epidemiological tracking
    • Virtual healthcare teams : healthcare professionals collaborating and sharing information on patients through online communication tools
    • M-health : using mobile devices in collecting patient health data, providing healthcare information, real-time monitoring of patient vitals, and direct provision of care
    • Healthcare online information systems: for hospital and healthcare professionals: appointment scheduling, patient data management, work schedule management and other administrative tasks surrounding health
  • 55. ICT4D: two basic approaches - ICT for productivity - From the experience and models of developed countries - Emphasis on [large] organizations - ICT for human development - From the needs of local communities and individuals - New models of services, collaboration and interaction based on local needs and experiences "TOP DOWN" "BOTTOM UP"
  • 56. The application long-tail Source: www.kiwania.net
  • 57. Three phases of ICT4D
    • ICT4D 0.0: mid 1950s -late 1990s Focus on computing/data processing for back-office applications in large governement and private sector organizations in developing countries
    • ICT4D 1.0: late 1990s – late 2000s Millennium Development Goals and development of Internet in rich countries  investment in ICT infrastructure and programmes. The diffusion on Telecentres.
    • ICT4D 2.0: late 2000s onwards The impact of mobile phones, Web 2.0, and more emphasis on “ bottom up ” innovation
  • 58. 4. Internet for development: a quantic gap
  • 59. Three big revolutions… These tools can change completely the approach of ICT4D, and its results… Never, in the story of technology, we had at our disposal a set of powerful tools like those resulting from the evolution of the internet in the last few years…
  • 60. 1. Communications
    • Cellular telephony
    • SMS
    • Mail
    • Forum
    • Chat
    • Blog
    • Social networks
    • Microblogging
    • IP telephony
    • Web radio
    • Tele-conference
  • 61. 1. Communications
    • Cellular telephony
    • SMS
    • Mail
    • Forum
    • Chat
    • Blog
    • Social networks
    • Microblogging
    • IP telephony
    • Teleconference
    • Web radio/TV
    2011 est: 86.7% Source: ITU, Measuring the Information Society, 2011
  • 62. 1. Communications
    • Cellular telephony
    • SMS
    • Mail
    • Forum
    • Chat
    • Blog
    • Social networks
    • Microblogging
    • IP telephony
    • Web radio
    • Tele-conference
    2003: Skype, Linkedin, MySpace, 2004: Facebook, Flickr, Orkut 2005: Youtube, Ning, Zoho 2006: Twitter , Google Docs 2007: 2008: Livestream 2009: Foursquare 2010: 2011: Google+
  • 63. 2. Cloud computing
    • Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)
    • Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed
    • Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
  • 64. 2. Software as a service
    • Computing power accessible from the net (cloud)
    • Large reduction of entry barrier to the implementation of ICT solutions: no hardware & software infrastructure needed
    • Sustainability of ICT solutions: low operation costs
    Application
  • 65. Before t Entry barrier Entry barrier (CAPEX)
    • - Hw & sw client & server
    • - K-H (systems & apps) - Infrastructure
    • Organization set-up
    Sustainability (OPEX)
    • - hw & sw maintenance
    • - Recurrent fees
    • Technical support
    • Operations
  • 66. After t - Hw/sw client - Client maintenance - Recurrent fees (applications and connectivity) Entry barrier (CAPEX) Sustainability (OPEX) Entry barrier
  • 67. 2. Software as a service Developing country Developed country A new role for NGO?
  • 68. Application virtualization
  • 69.
      • “ Ecosystems” of open-source software components, developed and maintained by large communities
      • Online services easily integrable to provide higher level services (embedding & mashup technologies)
    3. Applications building blocks 3. I building block per le applicazioni
  • 70. 5. Case studies
  • 71. Case study: Web portal + mobile phone CGNet Swara
    • Voice-based portal, freely accessible via mobile phone (Chhattisgarh, India)
    • Allows anyone to report and listen stories of local interest
    • Reported stories are moderated and become available for playback online as well as over the phone
    • http://cgnetswara.org
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kbAFwZMs4vA
    • http://www.thinkinnovation.org/it/innovation/innovation.php?c=5&id=105
  • 72. http://rise.mahindra.com/cgnet-swara-the-rise-of-the-citizen-journalist/
  • 73. Case study: Laptop + mobile for communication via SMS: FrontlineSMS VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=hEK0dTWgqzQ# ! www.kiwanja.net
  • 74. Case study: Low-cost SMS platform for healthcare : www.medicmobile.org
    • Medic Mobile develops and extends existing open-source platforms, including FrontlineSMS, to create connected, coordinated health systems
    • E.g. community health worker coordination, community mobilization for vaccination, logistics and supply chain management, outine data collection, mapping of health services, …
    • Minimal infrastructure requirements
  • 75. http://medicmobile.org/2010/01/11/art-with-impact/
  • 76. http://medicmobile.org/2011/03/02/help-extend-medical-care-in-india-with-3-simple-clicks/
  • 77. Case study: Children hospital La Mascota, Managua (Nicaragua)
  • 78. The project: pediatric emergency in Nicaragua
    • Only children hospital in Nicaragua
    • Connected via Internet to the departmental hospitals of Nicaragua, to support children emergency
    • Unified emergency procedures, remote support and data collection
    Children hospital «La Mascota», Managua
  • 79.
  • 80. The network Policlinico Milan La Mascota Managua VPN
  • 81. Case study: E-health Points in Punjab
    • http://www.thinkinnovation.org/it/innovation/innovation.php?c=2&id=70
    • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZItaMLGP0s&feature=player_embedded# !
  • 82. Case study: www.cure4kids.org
    • A web-based education project of St.Jude Children ’ s Research Hospital (Memphis, USA) to help health professionals in countries with limited resources to improve survival rates of children with catastrophic deseases
    • A free, global online medical education and collaboration network
    • Seminars, papers, oncopoedia, interest groups, international live online web conferences
  • 83.
  • 84. www.cure4kids.org: growth Start: Oct 2002 Oggi: 23.000 utenti in 176 Paesi
  • 85. Case study: crowdsourcing
    • Crowdsourcing to mobile phone owners simple jobs requiring cellular (e.g. translation in local language,, input of local data,…)
    • http://txteagle.com , Kenia
  • 86. Case study: job requests
    • Posting requests of low-skilled jobs to web sites and SMS
    • http://www.babajob.com , India
  • 87. 6. Some conclusions
  • 88. The pace of change
    • ICT is changing fast…
    My grandaddy (born 1883) typewriter: I learned typing on it … and now I use this
  • 89. The pace of change…
    • Piattaforme open source
    • Servizi di hosting
    • Servizi online per costruzione e hosting
    • Servizi di pagamento online
    • Social network sites
    • Photo, video, slides and document sharing sites
    • Telefonia IP
    • Microblogging
    • Online application suites
    • Online intranet
    • Geolocalizzazione
    Skype Twitter Google Apps Paypal Foursquare Drupal Wordpress Joomla Altervista Wordpress.com Wikia Webs Ning Weebly LinkedIn Facebook YouTube Slideshare Flickr Google Docs Zoho
  • 90. The pace of change
    • People is changing slowly…
    • … but the world is getting younger and younger
    • … and the new generations have grown (and will grow) with technology
    We must target the new generations as the driving force for change
  • 91. Internet is a lot more…
    • The “new” ICT (Internet) is different, and can give a lot of value…
    • … for a low cost
    • The main enabler will be broadband [mobile] access to the Internet
    • … because it gives access to lots of things (definitely, not only information!)
  • 92. An agenda for change
    • Invest in broadband [mobile] access
    • The software is there, and is (almost) free
    • Develop skills to identify, mix and integrate existing software and services
    • Take advantage of utility computing to avoid building local infrastructures
    • Concentrate on applications requirements, prototyping and experimentation
    • Share results over the net
  • 93. In three words… 1. Connect, connect, connect 2. Learn and experience the new paradigms 3. Understand local needs
  • 94.
    • Thank you!
    • [email_address]
    • www.rpolillo.it