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21. Progettare per l'errore

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Slides dalle lezioni del corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina per il corso di laurea in Informatica - Università di Milano Bicocca - Prof.R.Polillo (a.a.2014-15) - Lezione del 13 maggio 2015

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21. Progettare per l'errore

  1. 1. Corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina AA 2014-2015 Roberto Polillo Corso di laurea in Informatica Università di Milano Bicocca Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione PROGETTARE PER L'ERRORE
  2. 2. Queste slides… … si basano sul libro “Facile da usare”, dell’autore, dove si trovano tutte le necessarie spiegazioni. Vedi www.rpolillo.it Queste slide sono disponibili con licenza Creative Commons (attribuzione, non commerciale, condividi allo stesso modo) a chiunque desiderasse utilizzarle, per esempio a scopo didattico, senza necessità di preventiva autorizzazione: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/it/deed.it La licenza non si estende alle immagini fotografiche e alle screen shots, i cui diritti restano in capo ai rispettivi proprietari, che sono stati indicati, ove possibile, nelle didascalie del libro. L’autore si scusa per eventuali omissioni, e resta a disposizione per correggerle. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 2
  3. 3. Scopo di questa lezione 3 Discutere la nozione di errore umano, e presentare alcune linee guida per il trattamento degli errori nell’interazione uomo-macchina R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  4. 4. Errore R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 4 Il concetto di errore umano è più complesso di quanto non sembri a prima vista: infatti non esiste una dicotomia semplice fra “errore” e comportamento “corretto” “Errore” sarà inteso come termine generico per comprendere tutti quei casi in cui una sequenza pianificata di attività fisiche o mentali fallisce il suo scopo, e quando questo fallimento non possa essere attribuito all’intervento di qualche agente casuale James Reason, Human Error
  5. 5. Classificare l’errore umano 5 AZIONE NON INTENZIONALE (“SLIP” o “LAPSUS”) NO AZIONE INTENZIONALE MA ERRATA (“MISTAKE”) NO c’era l’intenzione di agire? l’azione è proceduta come pianificato? SI l’azione ha ottenuto lo scopo desiderato? SI AZIONE CORRETTA SI c’era intenzione nell’azione? NO AZIONE NON INTENZIONALE Es Urto il tavolo e rovescio un bicchiere NO AZIONE SPONTANEA Es Mi lanciano una palla di neve e mi proteggo SI Da: J.Reason, Human Error, 1990 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  6. 6. Slip (o lapsus) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 6 Letteralmente: “scivolata” Sostituzione involontaria di una lettera, suono, parola al posto di un’altra e, generalizzando, sostituzione di azioni o comportamenti al posto di altre Esempi:  lapsus linguae  lapsus calami
  7. 7. Error handling Error diagnosis Error recovery Progettare per l’errore: temi R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 7 Error prevention Error detection Error explanation
  8. 8. Prevenzione 8  Degli slip: di solito è abbastanza facile Esempio: “giusta” distanza fra i pulsanti, allontanando pulsanti di uso frequente da pulsanti “pericolosi”  Dei mistake: più difficile Esempio: formazione degli utenti, riprogettazione del sistema R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  9. 9. Prevenzione degli slip: esempio R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 9
  10. 10. Prevenzione dell’errore: alcune indicazioni R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 10  Diversificare le azioni dell’utente  Evitare comportamenti “modali”  Usare “funzioni obbliganti”  Imporre input vincolati  Non sovraccaricare la memoria a breve termine dell’utente  Richiedere conferme  Usare default inoffensivi  Fornire alternative sicure
  11. 11. Comportamenti modali 11 Quando il sistema si comporta diversamente a seconda dello stato (o modalità) in cui si trova, e questo stato non è facilmente riconoscibile dall’utente Se l’utente non conosce lo stato, non può prevedere come il sistema risponderà alle sue azioni R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  12. 12. La forma del cursore indica che sono in modalità “matita” MacPaint, 1984 12 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  13. 13. MacPaint, 1984 13 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  14. 14. Il cursore indica che sono in modalità “cammina” Wrath of the Gods (Luminaria, 1994) 14 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  15. 15. Funzioni obbliganti 15 Situazioni in cui le azioni sono vincolate in modo tale che la mancata esecuzione di un passaggio impedisca il successivo (D.Norman) Spesso ci danno noia, ma ci proteggono… Esempio: L’auto emette un segnale d’allarme quando si apre la porta con la chiave inserita nel cruscotto… … in tal modo è impossibile chiudersi fuori per errore R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  16. 16. Funzioni obbliganti: esercizio 16 In un sistema desktop quale delle seguenti due soluzioni è preferibile? 1. Selezione azione  selezione oggetto 2. Selezione oggetto  selezione azione R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  17. 17. Funzioni obbliganti: esercizio 1 17 In un sistema desktop quale delle seguenti due soluzioni è preferibile? 1. Selezione azione  selezione oggetto 2. Selezione oggetto  selezione azione R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  18. 18. Finder Macintosh, 1974 18 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  19. 19. Input vincolati R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 19  Permettere all’utente di effettuare solo azioni lecite nel contesto corrente  (Generalizza la nozione di funzione obbligante)
  20. 20. Input vincolati: esercizio 20 1) 2) 3) 4) Quale fra le seguenti soluzioni è la migliore per prevenire errori di input? R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  21. 21. Per informazioni sulle nuove offerte, premi 1; per informazioni sulle tariffe e bla bla bla, premi 2; se sei interessato a conoscere i nuovi servizi e bla bla, premi 3; se desideri comunicare furto o smarrimento del tuo telefonino o bla bla bla per assitenza specialistica, premi 4; se desideri ricevere informazioni sul credito bla bla premi 5; se desideri parlare con un operatore premi 0 Ricordare sempre il numero magico 7 Non sovraccaricare la memoria a breve termine R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 21
  22. 22. Richiedere conferme R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 22 Chiedere sempre conferma prima di effettuare azioni irreversibili o pericolose… …spiegando con chiarezza quali sono le alternative possibili, e le loro conseguenze
  23. 23. Richieste di conferma: esempi da discutere R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 23
  24. 24. Richieste di conferma: esempi da discutere R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 24 Da www.bravenet.com Da: Microsoft Access 95
  25. 25. 25 Menu xxx yyy zzz R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 Richieste di conferma: esempi da discutere Back XXX mvcbc bvbnv Sei sicuro di voler tornare? sì no Back XXX mvcbc bvbnv
  26. 26. Usare default inoffensivi: esempio R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 26 (da Photoshop)
  27. 27. Error handling Error diagnosis Error recovery Progettare per l’errore: temi R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 27 Error prevention Error detection Error explanation
  28. 28. Un buon messaggio di errore deve… 28 1. Allertare “attenzione: qualcosa non va” 2. Identificare l’errore “è questo che non va” 3. Dirigere l’utente “ora devi fare questo” R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  29. 29. Note alert box (Livello 1) Caution alert box (Livello 2) Stop alert box (Livello 3) Livelli di allerta R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 29
  30. 30. Messaggi di errore: linee guida 30  Spiegare esplicitamente che cosa non va…  e dare indicazioni costruttive su come risolvere il problema ...  nel linguaggio dell’utente …  in modo educato, esauriente e preciso R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  31. 31. Esempi da discutere R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 31
  32. 32. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 32 Esempi da discutere
  33. 33. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 33 Esempi da discutere
  34. 34. Linee guida per il web 34  i messaggi di errore siano chiaramente visibili e espressi in un linguaggio chiaro, comprensibile a tutti  si cerchi di preservare per quanto è possibile il lavoro già fatto dall’utente  si cerchi di ridurre al massimo il lavoro necessario per correggere l’errore R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  35. 35. 35 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  36. 36. 36 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  37. 37. HTTP 404 - File not found R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 37
  38. 38. 38 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  39. 39. Esempio dal sito di Jakob Nielsen 39 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  40. 40. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  41. 41. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  42. 42. Error handling Error diagnosis Error recovery Progettare per l’errore: temi R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 42 Error prevention Error detection Error explanation
  43. 43. AZIONE CORRETTA Stato iniziale Stato finale Stato di errore FORWARD RECOVERY BACKWARD RECOVERY Error recovery (ripristino) 43 Error tolerance R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  44. 44. Tolleranza verso gli errori 44 “Un dialogo è tollerante verso l’errore quando, a dispetto di evidenti errori nell’input, i risultati desiderati possono essere ottenuti senza (o con minime) azioni correttive.” ISO 9241 - 10 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  45. 45. Esempio 45 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  46. 46. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  47. 47. Esempio di backward recovery: undo 47 PowerPoint 2007 Photoshop CS3 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  48. 48. AZIONE CORRETTA Stato iniziale Stato finale Stato di errore Stato finale approssimato Stato iniziale approssimato FORWARD RECOVERY BACKWARD RECOVERY Recovery imperfetta 48 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 da Francis Jambon, 1998
  49. 49. Conclusioni 49 “Il progettista non deve concepire una semplice dicotomia fra errori e comporta-mento corretto: al contrario, tutta l’interazione uomo-macchina deve essere trattata come una procedura cooperativa fra i due, dove gli equivoci possono nascere da ambo le parti.” Donald Norman R.Polillo - Aprile 2015

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