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16. Evoluzione dei paradigmi di interazione uomo macchina (I)

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Slides dalle lezioni del corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina per il corso di laurea in Informatica - Università di Milano Bicocca (a.a.2014-15) - Prof.R.Polillo - Lezione del 28 aprile 2015

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16. Evoluzione dei paradigmi di interazione uomo macchina (I)

  1. 1. Corso di Interazione Uomo Macchina AA 2014-2015 Roberto Polillo Corso di laurea in Informatica Università di Milano Bicocca Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemistica e Comunicazione Evoluzione dei paradigmi di interazione (I) Edizione 2014-15
  2. 2. Queste slides… … si basano sul libro “Facile da usare”, dell’autore, dove si trovano tutte le necessarie spiegazioni. Vedi www.rpolillo.it Queste slide sono disponibili con licenza Creative Commons (attribuzione, non commerciale, condividi allo stesso modo) a chiunque desiderasse utilizzarle, senza necessità di preventiva autorizzazione: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/it/deed.it La licenza non si estende alle immagini fotografiche e alle screen shots, i cui diritti restano in capo ai rispettivi proprietari, che sono stati indicati, ove possibile, nelle didascalie del libro. L’autore si scusa per eventuali omissioni, e resta a disposizione per correggerle. R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 2
  3. 3. Di che cosa parleremo  In questo corso non ci interessa studiare le tecnologie, ma gli stili di interazione  Vedremo quindil’evoluzione storica dei principali stili che si sono consolidati negli anni R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 3
  4. 4. TECNOLOGIE DI INTERAZIONE PARADIGMI DI INTERAZIONE permettono nuovi suggeriscono nuove Evoluzione degli stili di interazione R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 4
  5. 5. Le tecnologie possibili sono tante… sistema utente OUTPUT DEVICES INPUT DEVICES • Vista • Udito • Tatto • Mani • Voce • Sguardo • Postura - display video - stampanti - sound devices - haptic devices - tastiere - manipolazione indiretta - manipolazione diretta - riconoscimento vocale - eye tracking - body sensor INPUT DEVICES mondo - scanner - foto & video camera - sound recorder - GPS - sensori di prossimità R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 5
  6. 6. Le tecnologie possibili sono tante…  … ma quelle dominanti in un certo periodo hanno determinato i principali “paradigmi” di interazione, che sono relativamente pochi R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 6
  7. 7. Le macro-fasi 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Teletype Personal computer Web Terminali video Mobiles R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 7
  8. 8. Le macro-fasi 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Teletype Personal computer Web Terminali video Mobiles R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 8
  9. 9. Tecnologia dominante: teletype R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 9
  10. 10. "Scrivi e leggi"10 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  11. 11. “Scrivi e leggi”: modalità  L’utente ha il controllo  command languages  query languages  line editors  adventure games  ...  Il computer ha il controllo  Q&A  advisory systems  ...  Entrambi hanno il controllo (“conversazione”)  ? R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 11
  12. 12. L’utente ha il controllo: command languages $pwd /usr/roberto $ls filea fileb filec $rm filea $ (Unix) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 12
  13. 13. L’utente ha il controllo: query languages GIVE THE NAMES OF ALL EMPLOYEES WHO HAVE JOBS WORKING AS A SECRETARY IN THE CITY OF CHICAGO. PRINT THE NAME OF ANY EMPLOYEE WITH CITY=CHICAGO AND JOB=SECRETARY THE NUMBER OF RECORDS TO RETRIEVE IS 30 SMITH JONES BROWN ... (Intellect) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 13
  14. 14. L’utente ha il controllo: adventure games You are standing at the end of a road before a small brick building. Around you is a forest. A small stream flows down a gully. ENTER BUILDING You are inside a building, a well house for a large spring. There are some keys on the ground here. There is a shiny brass lamp nearby. There is a bottle of water here. GET WATER Okay GET KEYS Okay (Adventure, 1975) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 14
  15. 15. Il computer ha il controllo : sistemi esperti (1) Patient’s name: (first-last) **FRED SMITH (2) Sex: **MALE (3) Age: **55 (4) Have you been able to obtain positive cultures from a site at which Fred Smith has an infection? **YES (5) What is the infection? **PRIMARY-BACTEREMIA (6) Please give the date and approximate time when signs of symptoms first appeared (Mycin) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 15 Questo stile di interazione oggi è inaccettabile: l’utente deve sempre avere il controllo dell’interazione!
  16. 16. Oggi si farebbe così… R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 16 Ma questo stile di dialogo non era possibile con delle teletype
  17. 17. La conversazione umana Nella conversazione umana, il controllo passa da un interlocutore all’altro, a seconda del contesto, con meccanismi molto complessi R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 17
  18. 18. Il test di Turing Un test proposto nel 1950 da Alan Turing • Un umano A interroga gli interlocutori B e C • Si sa che un interlocutore è umano (non conosce A), e che l’altro è un computer • A deve decidere chi è l’uomo e chi è il computer B C A Interlocutori Stanza chiusa Interrogante R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 18
  19. 19. ”Fra circa cinquant’anni sarà possibile programmare i computer … in modo tale da farli rispondere così bene che un interrogante medio non avrà più del 70% di possibilità di fare una identificazione corretta dopo 5 minuti di domande” (Turing, 1950) R.Polillo - Aprile 201519
  20. 20. Eliza HUMAN: GOOD MORNING MY NAME IS GAINES AND I WISH TO TALK TO YOU ELIZA: I AM NOT INTERESTED IN NAMES HUMAN: SORRY PERHAPS YOU COULD LET ME KNOW YOUR INTERESTS ELIZA: PLEASE DON’T APOLOGIZE HUMAN: THANK YOU WHAT INTEREST YOU MOST? ELIZA: WHY DO YOU ASK? HUMAN: BECAUSE I HAVE TO DEMONSTRATE YOUR INEFFABLE CAPABILITIES ELIZA: IS THAT THE REAL REASON? HUMAN: YES YOUR CAPABILITIES INTEREST ME ELIZA: YOU SEEM QUITE POSITIVE ... (Weizenbaum, 1966) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 20
  21. 21. The Loebner Prize http://www.loebner.net/Prizef/loebner-prize.html  Una gara annuale di programmi che si sottopongono al test di Turing (dal 1990)  Il programma che supera il test riceve $100.000  Finora nessuno ha superato il test  Il migliore del 2006: Jabberwacky (in http://www.jabberwacky.com si può chattare con Jabberbacky)  Il migliore del 2013: Mitsuku) (si può chattare in http://www.mitsuku.com ) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 21
  22. 22. Loebner prize: SAM, il migliore del 2005 SAM: Hello, my name is Sam and I am the human. JUDGE: Hi Sam, tell me which is larger, a TV screen or Belgium. SAM: Belgium is a little bit larger. JUDGE: Wljso lwjejdo wleje elwjeo wjeol, isn't it? SAM: Is that Polish? JUDGE: Who. SAM: What you wrote above. JUDGE: This is ljelwl, aren't you. SAM: I'm a little worried about your writing skills. JUDGE: Which is further away from this apartment, Queens or the Queen of England? SAM: If the Queen is visiting Manhattan, she is closer. JUDGE: If the Queen is visiting Manhattan, won't she want to abdicate? SAM: I would. JUDGE: You would rather not be Queen, then, right? SAM: I'd like to be Queen, but England's damp. How about you? JUDGE: Which is damper, England or under your sink? SAM: I'd like to be Queen, but England's damp. How about you? JUDGE: You didn't answer the question. SAM: You didn't answer my question. But please look at my response again. JUDGE: Change of subject: if you are human, you should know: what is lewleoxoe? SAM: Perhaps I should, but my Polish is rusty. JUDGE: How can a language be rusty, there is no metal in it? SAM: You write like a computer. JUDGE: Thanks a real compliment. You write like a human! SAM: Is that a compliment? JUDGE: Good thing I am the judge, not you. You would say I was a machine! SAM: There may be worse things to be. JUDGE: Which, a machine or a judge? SAM: Ha ha. I'll leave that you to. You're the judge! R.Polillo - Aprile 201522
  23. 23. Oggi: scrivi e leggi parla e ascolta Esempio: Apple Siri: in iPhone 4S ott 2011, in iPad in set 2012 Demo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtwVQhEXCcc In italiano: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MP7Ocf7Dsik Siri vs Cortana vs Google Now: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7H-CoPvEAI R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 23
  24. 24. Le macro-fasi 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Teletype Personal computer Web Terminali video Mobile R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 24
  25. 25. Tecnologia dominante: terminale video Esempio: Il terminale IBM 3270 (1972) tipicamente: 80 colonne tipicamente:24righe cursore tasti posizionamento cursore R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 25
  26. 26. "Indica e compila"26 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  27. 27. “Indica e compila”: applicazioni tipiche  Display editors (cursore)  Sistemi informativi (menu + forms) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 27
  28. 28. Display editor Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. In eros. Praesent quam tellus, vulputate pulvinar, cursus non, malesuada quis, nisi. Morbi placerat euismod orci. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Morbi sit amet mi at libero dictum cursus. Aenean pellentesque. Aliquam condimentum. Aenean est. cursore Comandi: Insert, Append, Delete, …. Esempio tipico: Vi (Unix) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 28
  29. 29. Sistemi informativi: esempio di form R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 29
  30. 30. Sistemi informativi: esempio di menu da IBM CUA (Common User Access): un insieme di linee guida per l’interfaccia utente, pubblicato da IBM nel 1987 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 30
  31. 31. Le macro-fasi 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Teletype Personal computer Web Terminali video Mobiles R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 31
  32. 32. Tecnologia dominante: personal computer R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 32
  33. 33. Il personal computer: tappe IBM PC 1981 XEROX STAR 1982 APPLE MACINTOSH 1984+ MICROSOFT WINDOWS 1990+ R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 33
  34. 34. "Non dirlo, fallo!"34 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015
  35. 35. Il personal computer: tappe IBM PC 1981 XEROX STAR 1982 APPLE MACINTOSH 1984 MICROSOFT WINDOWS 1990 XEROX STAR R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 35
  36. 36. Xerox Star, 1982 Schermo grafico a doppia pagina mouse R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 36
  37. 37. Xerox Star: la filosofia di base  Familiar user’s conceptual model (“desktop”)  Seeing and pointing versus remembering and typing  What you see is what you get ("WYSIWYG") R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 37
  38. 38. What you see is what you get (“WYSIWYG”) Il video presenta una immagine “identica” alla pagina stmpata Con lo Star, per la prima volta, le tecnologie di video e stampante sono “abbastanza” compatibili: - video con buona risoluzione - pixel quadrati - stampante laser di buona qualità (ma con risoluzione molto maggiore del video) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 38
  39. 39. Seeing & pointing vs remembering & typing Paradigma della manipolazione diretta:  Azioni fisiche su oggetti rappresentati sul video, non linguaggio di comandi  Rappresentazione continua dell’oggetto di interesse  Operazioni rapide, incrementali, reversibili  Feedback sull’oggetto di interesse visibile immediatamente (Shneiderman) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 39
  40. 40. Manipolazione diretta: il mouse Funzioni principali: • pointing • selecting • dragging R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 40
  41. 41. Il primo mouse, 1964 (D.Engelbart)R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 41
  42. 42. Tipi di mouse Macintosh Star Sun R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 42
  43. 43. Mouse e legge di Fitts I movimenti del mouse seguono la legge di Fitts: T = 1.03 + 0.96 log2 (D/S + 0.5) T = tempo per posizionare il mouse (in secondi) D = distanza dall’oggetto (in pixels) S = larghezza dell’oggetto Le costanti (1.03 e 0.96) sono circa le stesse dei movimenti manuali. Pertanto il mouse è quasi ottimale come pointing device R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 43
  44. 44. (Un gioco di scacchi per il Macintosh, circa 1987)R.Polillo - Aprile 201544
  45. 45. feedback R.Polillo - Aprile 201545
  46. 46. Familiar user conceptual model: la metafora della scrivania  il video “è” il desktop dell’utente  documenti, cartelle  disordine R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 46
  47. 47. R.Polillo - Aprile 201547
  48. 48. Video  Star user interface (lungo): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cn4vC80Pv6Q (Parte I) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODZBL80JPqw (Parte II) (più breve:)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wOAm7EiFNu8 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 48
  49. 49. Xerox Star: la filosofia di base (segue)  Universal commands  Consistency  Simplicity  Modeless interaction  User tailorability (Smith et al., Designing the Star User Intreface, 1982) • Familiar user’s conceptual model (“desktop”) • Seeing and pointing versus remembering and typing • What you see is what you get R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 49
  50. 50. Il personal computer: tappe IBM PC 1981 XEROX STAR 1982 APPLE MACINTOSH 1984 MICROSOFT WINDOWS 1990 IBM PC R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 50
  51. 51. IBM PC, 1981 • Assemblato da componenti standard • Basso costo • Sistema operativo MS-DOS (Microsoft, non IBM), con interfaccia a comandi • Enorme successo commerciale R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 51
  52. 52. Software Arts, 1979 (Apple II), 1981 (IBM PC) R.Polillo - Aprile 201552
  53. 53. Il personal computer: tappe IBM PC 1981 XEROX STAR 1982 APPLE MACINTOSH 1984 MICROSOFT WINDOWS 1990 APPLE MACINTOSH R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 53
  54. 54. Apple Macintosh, 1984 “The computer for the rest of us” Ispirato allo Star della Xerox: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpMeFh37mCE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y58u79RrK60 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 54
  55. 55. Desktop ispirato da Xerox Star, ma semplificato R.Polillo - Aprile 201555
  56. 56. R.Polillo - Aprile 201556
  57. 57. Apple Leopard OS desktop, 2008 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 57
  58. 58. Il personal computer: tappe IBM PC 1981 XEROX STAR 1982 APPLE MACINTOSH 1984 MICROSOFT WINDOWS 1990 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 58
  59. 59. Microsoft Windows  Windows 1 (1985)  Windows 2 (1987)  Windows 3 (1990)  Windows 95 (1995)  Windows 98 (1998)  Windows 2000 (2000)  Windows XP (2001)  Windows VISTA (2007)  Windows 7 (2009)  Windows 8 (2012)  Windows 10 (2014) R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 59
  60. 60. Windows vs Mac (1983 – 2011)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_onj4isp9fY R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 60
  61. 61. WINDOWS 1.0 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 61
  62. 62. WINDOWS 2.0 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 62
  63. 63. WINDOWS 3.1 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 63
  64. 64. WINDOWS 95 R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 64
  65. 65. WIMP Con questa sigla si indica spesso la classe di interfacce che seguono la filosofia impostata da Star (Mac, Windows, …):  Windows  Icons  Menus  Pointing R.Polillo - Aprile 2015 65

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