Emergency First Aid

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A 1-day Emergency First Aid course for workplace, home, recreation acivities and just about anywhere! Distilled from an Instructor-led workshop.

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  • To be able to acheive those Aims, we’re going to need to ....
  • BEWARE Chicken bones – rot quickly – possible septicaemia / infection
  • Emergency First Aid

    1. 1. Emergency First Aid<br />This presentation is a distilled version of an Instructor-led training event, which we hope you will find useful – we’ve left it in PPT format for you to download and edit as you wish, as we believe there’s no price for helping people in need. Please contact us for details of our courses.<br />www.sequentialmanagement.com<br />
    2. 2. Course Outline<br /> Legislation & Training Requirements<br /> Responsibilities - What is expected of a 1st Aider?<br /> Accident Assessment – Environment & Casualty<br /> Basic Life Support (BLS)<br /> CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation)<br /> Trauma – Bleeding, Burns & Fractures<br />Shock<br />
    3. 3. Course Aims<br />To be able to:<br /><ul><li>Administer basic life saving skills
    4. 4. Deal with common workplace injuries
    5. 5. Manage a first aid incident effectively</li></li></ul><li>Objectives<br />By being able to identify correct responses to:<br />Emergency situations<br /> Non-breathing casualty<br /> Common workplace injuries<br />
    6. 6. Emergency First Aid<br />1. Introduction<br />
    7. 7. What is First Aid?<br />First Aid<br />is the initial assistance or treatment given to someone who is injured or suddenly taken ill. <br />
    8. 8. Principles of First Aid<br /> Preserve Life<br /> Prevent Condition from getting Worse<br /> Promote Recovery<br />
    9. 9. Legal Requirements (UK)<br /> Health & Safety at Work Act 1974<br /> First Aid at Work Regulations 1981<br /> Approved Code Of Practice (ACOP)<br />Industry Required Training<br /><ul><li> Fully Qualified First Aid At Work Courses
    10. 10. First Aid At Work Refresher Courses
    11. 11. Appointed Persons First Aid Training</li></li></ul><li>Training Requirements<br /> What to do in an Emergency<br /> Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)<br /> Unconscious Casualty<br /> First Aid for Wounds and Bleeding<br />
    12. 12. Stay Within Your Training!<br />You are not a Doctor or Pharmacist!<br />
    13. 13. First Aider Role<br />Assess First Aid Situation <br /><ul><li>Danger
    14. 14. Treatment Required</li></ul>Administer First Aid <br /> Correctly and effectively call the Medical Services.<br />
    15. 15. Care with Confidence<br />Every casualty needs to feel secure and in safe hands. Create an air of confidence and assurance by: <br /> Being in control of your own actions reaction to the problem. <br /> Acting calmly and logically. <br /> Being gentle but firm. <br /> Speaking to the casualty kindly but in a clear and purposeful way. <br />
    16. 16. Signs & Symptoms<br />Signs:<br />Use your Senses<br /> See<br /> Feel<br /> Hear<br /> Smell<br />
    17. 17. Signs & Symptoms<br />Symptoms:<br />Casualty Reported Sensations<br /> Pain<br /> Lack of Movement <br /> Nausea<br />
    18. 18. Age Group Definitions<br />Adult – 7 years +<br />Child – 2 months to 7 years<br />Infant – Birth to12 months<br />
    19. 19. The Golden Hour<br />If the heart stops, Brain Damage can occur after just 3-4 minutes.<br />
    20. 20. Personal Safety & Hygiene<br /> Physical danger<br /> Hepatitis B/C<br /> HIV<br />Risk Management<br />
    21. 21. Dynamic Risk Assessment<br /><ul><li> Hazard Identification
    22. 22. Risk Assessment – who is at risk
    23. 23. Risk Control – control measures
    24. 24. Risk Elimination
    25. 25. Decision – Benefits
    26. 26. Action / No Action</li></ul>The application of the risk management process during the activities we undertake will lead to the Safe Person Concept.<br />
    27. 27. Dynamic Risk Assessment<br />Evaluate<br />Select Action<br />Proceed<br />Assess Action<br />Consider Alternative<br />YES<br />Risks versus Benefits<br />Do Not Proceed<br />Re-Assess Action<br />Add Control Measures?<br />NO<br />YES<br />(Based on: HM Fire Inspectorate 1998)<br />
    28. 28.
    29. 29. Personal Safety & Hygiene<br /> Hepatitis B/C<br /> HIV<br />
    30. 30. Emergency First Aid<br />2. Casualty Assessment<br />
    31. 31. Emergency Call<br />On the scene of an Accident your aim is to:<br /> Assess<br /> Diagnose<br /> Treat<br /> Dispose<br />
    32. 32. Actions at an Accident Scene<br /> D Danger<br /> R Response<br /> A Airway<br /> B Breathing<br /> CCirculation<br /> D Disability<br />
    33. 33. Primary Survey<br />Conscious<br />or <br />Unconscious?<br />
    34. 34. Multiple Casualties<br />Be sure to assess ALL casualties:<br />SAFETY FIRST!<br />Those making the most noise are more likely to survive – they’re breathing!<br />Look for those who are SILENT<br /> Non-breathing<br /> Shock<br />
    35. 35. Casualty Assessment<br />
    36. 36. The Conscious Casualty<br />HISTORY<br /> What happened?<br /> When did it happen?<br /> How did it happen?<br /> Has it happened before?<br /> Signs & Symptoms<br /> Medication<br /> Inform relatives<br />
    37. 37. Causes of Unconsciousness<br />F<br />I<br />S<br />H<br />S<br />H<br />A<br />P<br />E<br />D<br />Fainting<br />Infantile Convulsions<br />Shock<br />Heart Attack<br />Stroke<br />Head Injury<br />Asphyxia<br />Poisoning<br />Epilepsy<br />Diabetes<br />
    38. 38. Emergency Actions - Summary<br /> Assess the situation Risk Assessment<br /> Check Casualty All of them!<br /> Check Response Call Help <br /> Open Airway (if required)<br /> Breathe for Casualty (if required)<br /> Assess Circulation<br /> Commence CPR (if required)<br />Treat other injuries Prioritise<br />
    39. 39. Secondary Survey<br />Treat other Injuries<br />
    40. 40. Emergency First Aid<br />3. CPR<br />
    41. 41. CPR Protocols - 2009<br />Adult – Child – Infant<br />30 x Compressions<br />2 x Rescue Breaths<br />
    42. 42. CPR Protocols<br />Adult<br />1st Priority 30 Compressions<br />Adult Drowning orChild /Infant<br />1st Priority 5 Rescue Breathes<br />
    43. 43. CPR Protocols<br />Adult 30:2 Mouth-Mouth<br /><ul><li> Normal Lung Capacity</li></ul>Child 30:2 Mouth-Mouth<br /><ul><li> 50% Normal Lung Capacity</li></ul>Infant 30:2 Mouth-Mouth & Nose<br /><ul><li>Like blowingout a candle</li></li></ul><li>Rescue Breaths - Adult<br />
    44. 44. Rescue Breaths - Child & Infant<br />
    45. 45. CPR - Adult<br />
    46. 46. CPR - Child<br />
    47. 47. CPR - Infant<br />
    48. 48. Secondary Survey<br />Treat other Injuries<br /> Bleeding<br /> Burns<br /> Bones<br /> SHOCK<br />
    49. 49. Recovery Position<br />
    50. 50. Recovery Position<br />
    51. 51. Recovery Position<br />
    52. 52. Emergency First Aid<br />4. Bleeding<br />
    53. 53. Bleeding<br />Types of Bleeding<br />ArterialBright Red - Spurting<br />VenousDark Red - Flowing<br />CapillaryMedium Red - Trickling<br />
    54. 54. Types of Wound<br />
    55. 55. Treatment<br /> P - Position<br /> E - Examine<br /> E - Elevate<br /> P - Pressure<br />
    56. 56. Wash hands<br /> Rinse wound with clean water<br /> Dry with towel / lint-free cloth<br /> Cover with sterile dressing<br /> If a foreign object is embedded in the wound, dress around the object<br />Treatment<br />
    57. 57. Eye Injuries<br /> Support the Head<br /> Dress Injured Eye<br /> Hospital<br />
    58. 58. Other Types of Bleeding<br /> Nose Bleeds<br /> Mouth Bleeds<br />
    59. 59. Shock<br />Don’t forget SHOCK!<br />
    60. 60. Emergency First Aid<br />5. Burns<br />
    61. 61. Burns<br />Treatment<br /> Cool Burn Area <br />Apply COOL WATER 10 mins at least<br /> Remove Constrictions (if possible)<br /> DO NOT pull away burnt clothing<br /> Cover burn with STERILE dressing<br /> Hospital<br />
    62. 62. Burns<br />
    63. 63. Emergency First Aid<br />6. Bones<br />
    64. 64. Fractures<br />
    65. 65. Treatment<br /> Steady and Support<br /> Protect<br /> Hospital<br />Fractures<br />
    66. 66. Emergency First Aid<br />7. Shock<br />
    67. 67. Shock<br />There are many causes of shock:<br />Heavy loss of Fluids Burns<br />Bad News Spinal Cord Injury<br />Injury Severe Reactions<br />Blood Loss Hypo/Hyperthermia<br />Drug Overdose Hypoglycaemia<br />Infection Heart Attack<br />
    68. 68. Shock<br />Signs<br /> Rapid Pulse<br /> Pale, Cold & Clammy Skin<br /> Sweating<br />
    69. 69. Shock<br />Treatment:<br /> Lay Down<br /> Loosen Clothing<br /> Elevate Legs<br /> Nil By Mouth<br /> No Smoking<br /> Cover with Blanket<br /> Medical Assistance<br /> Monitor<br />
    70. 70. Emergency First Aid<br />8. Other Injuries & Illnesses<br />
    71. 71. Heart Attack<br />Signs & Symptoms<br />Vice-like Pain<br /> Feeling of Doom<br /> Breathlessness<br /> Ashen Skin <br /> Rapid then Weakening Pulse<br />
    72. 72. Heart Attack<br />Treatment<br /> Comfort Casualty<br /> Call Emergency services<br /> Give Medication<br /> Monitor<br />
    73. 73. Choking<br />Signs & Symptoms<br />General symptoms and signs of asphyxia. <br />Casualty will be unable to speak or breathe and may be gripping the throat. They may be completely silent.<br />Congestion of the face and neck with the veins becoming prominent, blueness of the lips and mouth.<br />Possible unconsciousness.<br />
    74. 74. Choking<br />Look in Mouth - Get the child to cough – if unsuccessful, give 5 back slaps. <br />Check their mouth<br />If unsuccessful:<br />Give up to 5 Abdominal thrusts<br />If unsuccessful – send for help. <br />Repeat back slaps and check mouth.<br />
    75. 75. Choking - Adult<br />
    76. 76. Choking- Child<br />
    77. 77. Choking - Infant<br />
    78. 78. Asthma<br />Signs<br /> Wheezing<br /> Difficulty Speaking<br /> Gray Blue Skin<br /> Loss of Consciousness<br />
    79. 79. Asthma<br />Treatment<br />Comfort<br /> Inhaler:<br /> - BrownorBlueorBoth<br /> Encourage Slow Breathing<br />BROWN- Preventative<br />BLUE- Relief<br />
    80. 80. Hyperventilation<br />Treatment:<br /> Be Firm BUT Reassuring<br /> Keep Casualty Quite<br /> Try To Restore Normal Breathing<br /> Paper Bag<br /> Seek Medical Advice <br />
    81. 81. Seizures - Convulsions & Fits<br />Adult (Epilepsy)<br />Child (Infections)<br />Infant (Infections)<br />
    82. 82. Seizures - Convulsions & Fits<br />Adult<br />Protect Casualty<br /> Ease Fall<br /> Protect Head <br /> Loosen Tight Clothing<br /> Recovery Position<br /> Maintain Casualty Dignity<br />
    83. 83. Child and Infant (Infection Related)<br /> Protect from Injury<br /> Cool Child/Infant (Cool gradually)<br /> Sponge with Tepid Water<br /> Recovery Position<br /> Medical Assistance<br />Seizures - Convulsions & Fits<br />
    84. 84. Head Injuries<br /> Concussion<br /> Cerebral Compression<br /> Skull Fracture<br /> Possible Neck Injury<br />
    85. 85. Head Injuries<br />Signs and Symptoms<br /> Blow / injury to the head<br /> Dizziness<br /> Nausea<br /> Loss of memory<br /> Headache<br /> Concussion – brief impaired consciousness<br /> Pupils unequal size<br /> Drowsiness / Disorientation<br />
    86. 86. Treatment<br /> Check Responsiveness<br /> Monitor<br /> DO NOT allow to eat, drink or smoke<br /> Hospital<br />Head Injuries<br />
    87. 87. Head Injuries<br />Treat ALL head injuries as Serious<br />There is risk of Brain Damage<br />
    88. 88. Strains & Sprains<br />Associated with the Softer Structures around Bones and Joints. Usually Sporting Injuries.<br />
    89. 89. Strains & Sprains<br />Treatment:<br /> RREST<br /> IICE<br /> CCOMPRESS<br /> EELEVATE<br />
    90. 90. Stings<br />To relieve pain and swelling apply a cold compress, surgical spirit or a solution of bicarbonate of soda. For jellyfish stings, smooth calamine lotion into the affected area.<br />
    91. 91. Stings<br /> FOR STINGS IN THE MOUTH OR THROAT<br />To reduce the swelling give the casualty ice to suck. Alternatively, rinse the mouth with cold water or a solution of water and bicarbonate of soda (one teaspoon to a glass tumbler).<br />
    92. 92. Stings<br />TREATMENT FOR STINGS IN THE SKIN<br />If the sting has been left deeply embedded in the skin, LEAVE ITas further attempts to remove may in fact increase the flow of poison. Seek medical assistance.<br />DO NOT squeeze the poison sac because this will force the remaining poison into the skin.<br />
    93. 93. Stings<br />Anaphylactic Shock<br />If breathing becomes difficult, place casualty in the Recovery Position.<br />Call Emergency Services immediately<br />
    94. 94. Swallowed Objects<br />Reassure the casualty and the parents if the casualty is a child. <br />Call Emergency Services immediately<br />DO NOT give the casualty anything by mouth.<br />
    95. 95. Summary Q&A<br />Summary<br /><ul><li>Safety!
    96. 96. Remember DR ABCD
    97. 97. Questions?</li></li></ul><li>Emergency First Aid<br />www.sequentialmanagement.com<br />All images used are freely available from the web and/or are credited to original owner where relevant and to our knowledge do not infringe copyright.<br />

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