Basic First Aid Awareness Training - Preview


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Basic First Aid Awareness Training

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Basic First Aid Awareness Training - Preview

  1. 1. Basic First Aid Staff Training Pack <ul><li>W&P Assessment and Training Centre </li></ul>
  2. 2. Basic First Aid “ First aid is the immediate assistance or treatment given to a casualty at the scene of an accident before qualified help arrives”. PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  3. 3. Primary Survey <ul><li>DRABC </li></ul><ul><li>Danger . Assess the situation. Make sure that neither the casualty nor yourself are in danger. For example the casualty could be in the middle of a busy road and so firstly you would need to ensure that somebody is controlling the traffic. The casualty may still be holding on to an electrical appliance and you will need to make sure that the power is turned off before you touch the casualty. Dial 999 </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  4. 4. Chest Compressions. <ul><li>Lay the casualty on their back ideally on a hard surface and kneel beside the casualty at chest level. Place the heel of one hand on the centre of the casualty’s chest. Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand. Interlock your fingers and keep the fingers off the casualty’s chest. Lean over the casualty and keeping your arms straight press down on the casualty’s chest, 4-5cms. Release the pressure without removing your hand from the chest. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the chest to come up before carrying out the next compression. Compress at a rate of 60 per minute and after 30 compressions do two rescue breaths. Continue until the casualty starts breathing or the paramedics arrive. If there are 2 people then share the procedure as it is very tiring. </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  5. 5. Notes on Basic Life Support <ul><li>The diagnosis of cardiac arrest ( The heart having stopped beating) is made if the victim is unresponsive and not breathing properly </li></ul><ul><li>Each rescue breath should take one second </li></ul><ul><li>The ratio of compressions to ventilations is 30:2. This ratio should also be used on children when a “lay person” is responding </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of compressions is 100 per minute </li></ul><ul><li>The chest should be compressed by 4-5 cm </li></ul><ul><li>If two people are responding one should carry out 30:2 while the other rests and they should change over completely approximately every two minutes </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  6. 6. Basic Life Support for a Child <ul><li>Age definition </li></ul><ul><li>An infant is a child under 1 year. </li></ul><ul><li>A child is between 1 year and puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Life Support for a Child </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence varies slightly from that for an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the child “can you hear me”, speak loudly and clearly </li></ul><ul><li>If no response gently tap the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a response but you need to go and call for help then leave the child where they are and go for help (treat any other condition you may have found e.g. bleeding) </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no response call for help and then proceed as for adults and initially check the airway but only use minimal pressure to lift the chin. Using your fingers pick out any obvious obstruction in the mouth but do not do a finger sweep. These procedures or most easily carried out if the individual is on their back. Do this with all possible care. If a neck injury is suspected use the jaw thrust method to open the airway. </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  7. 7. Rescue breathes for an infant. <ul><li>Make up to 5 attempts to achieve effective breathes. If still unsuccessful move on to chest compressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for signs of life (circulation). This may include colour to the skin not blue, movement, coughing or normal breaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for circulation for up to 10 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are confident that you can see signs of circulation in 10 seconds: </li></ul><ul><li>Continue rescue breaths, if necessary until the child starts breathing effectively on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Put the casualty into the recovery position. For an infant it may be necessary to support the back with clothing, pillow or similar </li></ul><ul><li>Re-assess the casualty frequently </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  8. 8. Causes of unconsciousness <ul><li>Fainting </li></ul><ul><li>Intoxication </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Head injury </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma & Anaphylaxis </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoning/drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul>The mnemonic FISH SHAPED is used to remember the causes of unconsciousness PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  9. 9. The Choking Adult <ul><li>It usually occurs during a meal or when eating at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the Severity </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the casualty – “are you choking”? </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a partial airway obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Victim speaks and answers yes (perhaps with difficulty) </li></ul><ul><li>Victim is able to speak, cough and breathe </li></ul><ul><li>If it is a complete airway obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Victim is unable to answer the question and may nod in response </li></ul><ul><li>Victim is unable to breathe or </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing sounds wheezy </li></ul><ul><li>Victim will become unconscious </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  10. 10. The chocking child <ul><li>Chocking is a fairly common occurrence, generally occurring when the child is playing or eating. Intervention is usually initiated when the child is conscious. The characteristics are distress associated with coughing, gagging or stridor (noisy breathing). The onset is very sudden and there are no other signs of illness </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  11. 11. Chocking Infant (under 1 year) <ul><li>Check the infants mouth but do not do a finger sweep </li></ul><ul><li>Lay the infant face down along your forearm with its head low but body and head fully supported </li></ul><ul><li>Give 5 back slaps between the shoulder blades. Turn the child over to check the mouth and remove any obvious obstruction </li></ul><ul><li>If chocking persists give 5 chest thrusts. Place 2 fingertips on the lower half of the infant’s breastbone, just below the nipples. Give up to 5 sharp thrusts inwards and towards the head at a rate of 1 every 3 seconds Check the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>If chocking continues take the infant with you and call for medical help and continue the above sequence </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  12. 12. What is FAST? <ul><li>F acial weakness - can the person smile? Has their mouth or eye drooped? </li></ul><ul><li>A rm weakness - can the person raise both arms? </li></ul><ul><li>S peech problems - can the person speak clearly and understand what you say? </li></ul><ul><li>T ime to call 999 </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  13. 13. Burns and scalds <ul><li>When the skin blisters the layers are separated and the space is filled with a clear fluid called serum or plasma. It is sterile so the blister should not be punctured as this allows the opportunity for the introduction of infection. </li></ul><ul><li>A burn can be caused by excessive heat or cold. A burned area is highly susceptible to infection so it is important that the exposed area of tissue is not touched or allowed to come into contact with infected material, this can be absolutely anything including the hands of the first aider. The first thing to do is remove the heat. This is best done with cold running water for minor burns. For major burns covering large areas of the body the importance is that the casualty is seen very quickly by the emergency services. </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  14. 14. Diabetes <ul><li>This is a failure of the body to deal with its sugar satisfactorily. </li></ul><ul><li>When sufficient insulin is produced by the pancreas it enables sugar to be stored in the liver as glucose. From there it is distributed in the blood to every cell in the body as they need it. </li></ul><ul><li>Where insufficient insulin or no insulin is produced by the pancreas sugar remains in the blood and is excreted in the urine </li></ul><ul><li>This is called hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar). </li></ul><ul><li>When to much insulin or insufficient sugar is present the condition is called hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar). This condition can take a considerable time, hours or even days to present itself. </li></ul>PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW
  15. 15. End of Basic First Aid Awareness W&P Assessment and Training Centre PREVIEW SLIDE FROM POWER POINT SHOW