Emergency Care[1]


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A summary of Royal Life Saving Emergency Care 2008

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Emergency Care[1]

  1. 1. Emergency care A summary of how you can assist others in an emergency
  2. 2. Emergency Care Topics <ul><li>Basic principles </li></ul><ul><li>Legal considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Burns </li></ul><ul><li>Choking </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Envenomation </li></ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and cold </li></ul>
  3. 3. What it is all about <ul><li>What is Emergency care ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Simple, effective management or care given to a casualty of injury or sudden illness until more advanced care can be provided.” </li></ul><ul><li>Aims of emergency care are: </li></ul><ul><li>· to preserve life </li></ul><ul><li>· to protect the unconscious casualty </li></ul><ul><li>· to prevent further injury or pain </li></ul><ul><li>· to promote recovery. </li></ul>
  4. 4. In the situation of an emergency… <ul><li>Your priorities should be: </li></ul><ul><li>D Danger : remove the danger, or the casualty from danger before proceeding further. </li></ul><ul><li>R Response : determine whether the casualty is conscious. </li></ul><ul><li>A Airway : ensure airway is clear. </li></ul><ul><li>B Breathing : if absent, expired air resuscitation needs to be commenced immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>C Compressions : if absent, cardiopulmonary resuscitation is urgently required. Don't need to check circulation anymore </li></ul>
  5. 5. If a casualty is conscious… <ul><li>The secondary survey is to: </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain history </li></ul><ul><li>Check for vital signs </li></ul><ul><li>Note casualty symptoms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Duty of care <ul><li>People should only act if they have duly considered the consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Duty of care depends on the relationship you have with the other i.e. Teacher and student. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not emergency care trained and/or not confident you may choose not to act and simply call 000 and communicate with others </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factors in controlling bleeding <ul><li>P ressure </li></ul><ul><li>E levation </li></ul><ul><li>R est and reassurance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Shock <ul><li>To treat shock we aim to: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent further injury </li></ul><ul><li>Control bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Reassure and rest casualty </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain normal body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate casualty’s leg if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Do not give anything to eat or drink </li></ul><ul><li>Call ambulance 000 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Burns <ul><li>Do: </li></ul><ul><li>Cool burns under running water </li></ul><ul><li>Remove jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Cover burn with sterile non-stick dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Treat for shock </li></ul>
  10. 10. Burns <ul><li>DO NOT: </li></ul><ul><li>Break blisters </li></ul><ul><li>Apply lotions, ointments or creams </li></ul><ul><li>Apply ice </li></ul><ul><li>Remove clothing that sticks to the burned area </li></ul>
  11. 11. Choking <ul><li>If a causality is able to breathe: </li></ul><ul><li>Allow them to cough with no interference </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to recover </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange for medical care </li></ul>
  12. 12. Choking <ul><li>If casualty is not able to breathe: </li></ul><ul><li>Position head low </li></ul><ul><li>Give 4 back blows </li></ul><ul><li>Reassess breathing </li></ul>
  13. 13. If the back blow was INEFFECTIVE : <ul><li>Place on side </li></ul><ul><li>Give 4 lateral chest thrusts </li></ul><ul><li>Continue previous steps </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor ABC </li></ul>
  14. 14. Asthma Attacks <ul><li>Step 1 Sit the casualty upright, remain calm and provide reassurance. Do not leave the casualty alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 Give four puffs of a reliever puffer (Airomir, Asmol, Bricanyl, Respolin or Ventolin), one puff at a time, preferably through a spacer device*. Ask the casualty to take four breaths from the spacer after each puff. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 Wait four minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 If there is little or no improvement, repeat steps 2 and 3. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Severe Asthma Attack <ul><li>If the casualty is not responding to the previous measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Call an ambulance </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat steps 2 and 3 while waiting for ambulance </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diabetes <ul><li>If conscious, give the casualty sugar </li></ul><ul><li>If unconscious, </li></ul><ul><li>- Call for medical assistance </li></ul><ul><li>- Monitor ABC </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not give sugar by mouth </li></ul>
  17. 17. Seizures <ul><li>If the casualty is fitting: </li></ul><ul><li>Remove sharp or hard objects to protect the casualty from the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>If on a hard surface, protect the casualty’s head with clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the casualty on to their side as soon as possible and maintain a clear airway. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not try to place anything in the mouth. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Seizures <ul><li>Call an ambulance if: </li></ul><ul><li>It is an infant/child </li></ul><ul><li>Remains unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>is pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Has diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Has had no previous history </li></ul><ul><li>Has seizure in water </li></ul><ul><li>The seizure has lasted long than a few minutes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Poisons <ul><li>Poisoning can occur in four ways: </li></ul><ul><li>ingestion (swallowed) </li></ul><ul><li>inhalation (breathed) </li></ul><ul><li>absorption (through skin) </li></ul><ul><li>injection (needles, bites, stings). </li></ul><ul><li>If a patient is unconscious… </li></ul><ul><li>UNCONSCIOUS = Contact poison Information Centre 131126 </li></ul><ul><li>CONSCIOUS = Apply DRABC </li></ul>
  20. 20. Envenomation <ul><li>To deal with poisons through bites and stings, apply the... </li></ul><ul><li>PIT (pressure immobilisation technique) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Envenomation <ul><li>Insect bites and Stings </li></ul><ul><li>Apply ice </li></ul><ul><li>Apply PIT immediately if allergic reaction occurs or if casualty is known to be allergic </li></ul><ul><li>Marine stingers </li></ul><ul><li>Hot water for scorpion or stone fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cold packs for jellyfish or bluebottles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sprains, strains and bruising <ul><li>Apply RICER </li></ul><ul><li>R est </li></ul><ul><li>I ce </li></ul><ul><li>C ompression </li></ul><ul><li>E levation </li></ul><ul><li>R eferral </li></ul>
  23. 23. Fractures <ul><li>To treat a suspected fracture: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent further movement </li></ul><ul><li>Support or immobilise the injured part </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to use a splint if you are able to access this resource </li></ul>
  24. 24. Exposure to heat <ul><li>If casualty is overheated </li></ul><ul><li>Rest and reassure </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually cool body surface </li></ul><ul><li>Give cool water </li></ul>
  25. 25. Exposure to cold <ul><li>If the casualty is suspected hypothermic: </li></ul><ul><li>Cover affected area with dressing </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually warm body surface </li></ul><ul><li>Give warm fluids </li></ul>