First Aid Provider First Aid: ‘ Emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes available’. Initial Responsibilities of A First Aider: Recognizing a medical emergency. Making the decision to help. Identifying hazards and ensuring personal safety. Activating the EMS system Providing supportive, basic first aid care.
Legal Considerations Everyone has the right to refuse help. When person is unresponsive, the concept of ‘implied consent’ is adapted. A parent/guardian should be asked before providing care to a child. In their absence consent is legally implied. It is important to remain with the person once first aid care has been initiated.
Personal Safety Emergency Scenes often are unsafe. Your safety is your highest priority. If location is unsafe, GET OUT! SETUP: STOP Environment Traffic Unknown Hazards Personal Safety
Disease Transmission andPrecautions When providing first aid care, you can be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious fluids. Infectious diseases include, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. Exposure can occur through direct contact with an open wound/sore or through mucous membranes.
Always wear gloves and remove contaminated gloves carefully. Use a shield or CPR mask if rescue breaths are required. A face shield can prevent mouth, nose and eye exposure when there is splashing or spraying. If you don’t have protective equipment, then IMPROVISE.
Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA) Occurs when the normal electrical impulse of the heart is disorganized. Blood flow to the brain stops and there is loss of consciousness. Intervention by a bystander with Rescue breaths and chest compressions could restore some of the lost oxygen.
Chain of Survival Immediate recognition and activation of EMS. Early CPR with effective chest compressions. Rapid Defibrillation. Advanced life support. Post Cardiac-Arrest Care
Primary Assessment Assess- Look at Face and Chest for Breathing Alert- Call EMS Attend- Start CPRSkill 2: CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
Unresponsive-Breathing Skill 3: RECOVERY POSITION
Foreign Body Air Way Obstruction Adults: Abdominal Thrusts, if unresponsive start CPR Children: Abdominal Thrusts, if unresponsive Start CPR Infants: 5 Back Blows, 5 chest thrusts. If unresponsive, Start CPR
Soft-Tissue Injuries Minor Wounds: Wash with clean, running water. Apply firm,continous pressure Cover with gauze pad or adhesive bandage. Remember: Wear your gloves.
Amputation Complete loss of a body part. Amputated parts can be surgically reattached. Locate the severed part. Wrap it in a sterile/clean cloth. Place the part in a tightly sealed plastic bag Place the bag or container on ice Note: Do not soak severed part in water, and do not put it directly on ice.
Impaled Object An object that penetrates the body and remains embedded. NEVER REMOVE AN IMPALED OBJECT. Keep the person still, call EMS and use direct pressure if bleeding. Keep the person calm, treat for shock. Reassess until EMS arrives.
Open Chest Injuries Activate EMS. Cover wound with something airtight. Tape three sides and leave one side open, to allow trapped air to escape. Make person comfortable and treat for shock.
Open Abdominal Injury Abdominal organs may protrude through an open wound. Cover any protruding organs with thick moist dressing. Do not push organs back into the body. Do Not apply direct pressure on the wound or exposed internal part. Treat for shock.
Shock Develops when poor blood flow creates a shortage of oxygen to body tissues. If not treated early, can be life threatening. A person may appear to be uneasy, restless, and worried. Skin may appear to be pale, cool and sweaty. Must be transported to hospital immediately. To reduce effect of shock, ensure an open airway, maintain body temperature, give nothing to eat or drink.
Injuries to Limbs Strains: Stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons. Sprains: Tearing injuries to ligaments that holds joints together. Dislocations: Separation of bone ends at a joint. Fractures: Breaks in Bones
Difficult to separate muscle injuries from fractures, so treat them all as possible fractures. Minimize movement and prevent additional injury. Splinting can reduce pain and prevent further injury.
Secondary Assessment Determine chief complaint. Look around for clues. Look at the person, feel for any sign of illness or injury. D-Deformities O-Open Injuries T-Tenderness S-Swelling Ask Questions ( SAMPLE)
S- Symptoms? A-Allergies? M-Medications? P-Past medical history? L- Last oral intake E-Events?
Burns Minor Burns: Involves the outer layer of the skin and results in redness and pain. Cool the area with water. Continue cooling until pain is relieved. Do not apply ice directly to cool a burn. Leave any blisters intact and cover with loose sterile pad. Critical Burns: Involves a larger part of the body and damages skin tissue and causes excessive blistering.
Activate EMS. Expose the burn area by cutting away any clothing. Do not pull any cloth that might be stuck to the burnt area. Remove Jewellery. Separate fingers or toes with dry sterile dressing. Give the person nothing to eat or drink .
Sudden Illness Fainting: Result of the drop of blood flow to the brain, due to sudden stress, lack of food or water, prolonged standing in one place. Lay the person flat. If not injured elevate the legs about 6-12 inches. If not possible sit the person down and place his head between his knees. Stroke: Occurs when blood supply to a portion of the brain is suddenly interrupted. Mostly occurs when a blood clot gets caught in a blood vessel.
Signs could include: Numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg on one side of the body. Person may appear confused. Person could become incoherent. Sight and balance can be affected. Stroke Assessment: SMILE HOLD UP BOTH ARMS SPEAK A SIMPLE SENTENCEImmediate transport to a medical facility required.
Seizure Triggered by excessive electrical activity within the brain. The result is uncontrolled muscle convulsions throughout the body. Protect the person during the seizure. Remove hazards. Do not restrain the person. Allow the seizure to take its course. Turn person into recovery position after the seizure has stopped and seek medical attention.
Other Important Topics Snake Bites Drowning Fire Emergencies Transportation Lifting Methods Emotional Considerations.