First Aid and CPR


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First Aid and CPR

  1. 1. Nivendra Uduman
  2. 2. First Aid Provider First Aid: ‘ Emergency care provided for injury or sudden illness before professional emergency medical treatment becomes available’. Initial Responsibilities of A First Aider:  Recognizing a medical emergency.  Making the decision to help.  Identifying hazards and ensuring personal safety.  Activating the EMS system  Providing supportive, basic first aid care.
  3. 3. Legal Considerations Everyone has the right to refuse help. When person is unresponsive, the concept of ‘implied consent’ is adapted. A parent/guardian should be asked before providing care to a child. In their absence consent is legally implied. It is important to remain with the person once first aid care has been initiated.
  4. 4. Personal Safety Emergency Scenes often are unsafe. Your safety is your highest priority. If location is unsafe, GET OUT! SETUP:  STOP  Environment  Traffic  Unknown Hazards  Personal Safety
  5. 5. Disease Transmission andPrecautions When providing first aid care, you can be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious fluids. Infectious diseases include, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV. Exposure can occur through direct contact with an open wound/sore or through mucous membranes.
  6. 6.  Always wear gloves and remove contaminated gloves carefully. Use a shield or CPR mask if rescue breaths are required. A face shield can prevent mouth, nose and eye exposure when there is splashing or spraying. If you don’t have protective equipment, then IMPROVISE.
  8. 8. Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA) Occurs when the normal electrical impulse of the heart is disorganized. Blood flow to the brain stops and there is loss of consciousness. Intervention by a bystander with Rescue breaths and chest compressions could restore some of the lost oxygen.
  9. 9. Chain of Survival Immediate recognition and activation of EMS. Early CPR with effective chest compressions. Rapid Defibrillation. Advanced life support. Post Cardiac-Arrest Care
  10. 10. Primary Assessment Assess- Look at Face and Chest for Breathing Alert- Call EMS Attend- Start CPRSkill 2: CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
  11. 11. Unresponsive-Breathing Skill 3: RECOVERY POSITION
  12. 12. Foreign Body Air Way Obstruction Adults: Abdominal Thrusts, if unresponsive start CPR Children: Abdominal Thrusts, if unresponsive Start CPR Infants: 5 Back Blows, 5 chest thrusts. If unresponsive, Start CPR
  13. 13. Soft-Tissue Injuries Minor Wounds:  Wash with clean, running water.  Apply firm,continous pressure  Cover with gauze pad or adhesive bandage.  Remember: Wear your gloves.
  14. 14. Amputation Complete loss of a body part. Amputated parts can be surgically reattached.  Locate the severed part.  Wrap it in a sterile/clean cloth.  Place the part in a tightly sealed plastic bag  Place the bag or container on ice  Note: Do not soak severed part in water, and do not put it directly on ice.
  15. 15. Impaled Object An object that penetrates the body and remains embedded. NEVER REMOVE AN IMPALED OBJECT. Keep the person still, call EMS and use direct pressure if bleeding. Keep the person calm, treat for shock. Reassess until EMS arrives.
  16. 16. Open Chest Injuries Activate EMS. Cover wound with something airtight. Tape three sides and leave one side open, to allow trapped air to escape. Make person comfortable and treat for shock.
  17. 17. Open Abdominal Injury Abdominal organs may protrude through an open wound. Cover any protruding organs with thick moist dressing. Do not push organs back into the body. Do Not apply direct pressure on the wound or exposed internal part. Treat for shock.
  18. 18. Shock Develops when poor blood flow creates a shortage of oxygen to body tissues. If not treated early, can be life threatening. A person may appear to be uneasy, restless, and worried. Skin may appear to be pale, cool and sweaty. Must be transported to hospital immediately. To reduce effect of shock, ensure an open airway, maintain body temperature, give nothing to eat or drink.
  19. 19. Injuries to Limbs Strains: Stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons. Sprains: Tearing injuries to ligaments that holds joints together. Dislocations: Separation of bone ends at a joint. Fractures: Breaks in Bones
  20. 20.  Difficult to separate muscle injuries from fractures, so treat them all as possible fractures. Minimize movement and prevent additional injury. Splinting can reduce pain and prevent further injury.
  22. 22. Secondary Assessment Determine chief complaint. Look around for clues. Look at the person, feel for any sign of illness or injury.  D-Deformities  O-Open Injuries  T-Tenderness  S-Swelling  Ask Questions ( SAMPLE)
  23. 23.  S- Symptoms? A-Allergies? M-Medications? P-Past medical history? L- Last oral intake E-Events?
  24. 24. Burns Minor Burns: Involves the outer layer of the skin and results in redness and pain.  Cool the area with water.  Continue cooling until pain is relieved.  Do not apply ice directly to cool a burn.  Leave any blisters intact and cover with loose sterile pad. Critical Burns: Involves a larger part of the body and damages skin tissue and causes excessive blistering.
  25. 25.  Activate EMS. Expose the burn area by cutting away any clothing. Do not pull any cloth that might be stuck to the burnt area. Remove Jewellery. Separate fingers or toes with dry sterile dressing. Give the person nothing to eat or drink .
  26. 26. Sudden Illness Fainting: Result of the drop of blood flow to the brain, due to sudden stress, lack of food or water, prolonged standing in one place.  Lay the person flat.  If not injured elevate the legs about 6-12 inches.  If not possible sit the person down and place his head between his knees. Stroke: Occurs when blood supply to a portion of the brain is suddenly interrupted. Mostly occurs when a blood clot gets caught in a blood vessel.
  27. 27. Signs could include: Numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg on one side of the body. Person may appear confused. Person could become incoherent. Sight and balance can be affected. Stroke Assessment: SMILE HOLD UP BOTH ARMS SPEAK A SIMPLE SENTENCEImmediate transport to a medical facility required.
  28. 28. Seizure Triggered by excessive electrical activity within the brain. The result is uncontrolled muscle convulsions throughout the body.  Protect the person during the seizure.  Remove hazards.  Do not restrain the person.  Allow the seizure to take its course.  Turn person into recovery position after the seizure has stopped and seek medical attention.
  29. 29. Other Important Topics Snake Bites Drowning Fire Emergencies Transportation Lifting Methods Emotional Considerations.
  30. 30. Thank You!!!