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James R. Connell P.E. - October 13, 2011
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James R. Connell P.E. - October 13, 2011

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  • 1. Electric Generation Technologies October 13, 2011James R. Connell P.E.Sr. VP, National Director Power Facilities
  • 2. Pesky Laws of Thermodynamics First Law -Conservation of Energy: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be converted from one form to another. Second Law – There is no such thing as 100% efficiency. There are always losses.
  • 3. Conventional Steam Power Plants
  • 4. Steam Power PlantsSources of Thermal Energy: Coal Natural Gas Oil Biomass Nuclear Solar Thermal Roughly 90% of all electrical power generated in the world is via a Rankine Cycle. Typical large power station efficiency 30-40%Rankine Cycle
  • 5. Solid Fuel Boiler Types• Stoker / GrateFuel is combusted primarily on top of a grate
  • 6. Solid Fuel Boiler TypesPulverized Coal (PC)PC Boilers are more efficient than stokers
  • 7. Solid Fuel Boiler TypesFluidized Bed Combustion Bubbling Fluidized Bed BoilerFluidized bed boilers – fuel flexibility & lower NOx/SOx formation.
  • 8. Conventional Steam Plant Overview
  • 9. In Real Life …Nebraska City Station
  • 10. CFB Boiler Characteristics• Fuel flexibility - ability to utilize a wide range of fuels, better able to incorporate renewable & opportunity fuels• SOx removal as part of combustion process with limestone addition >95%• Lower combustion temperatures result in substantially lower NOx, ~ 50%
  • 11. CFB BoilersPros:• Good fuel flexibility, lower fuel costs & incorporation of renewables• Potentially lower fuel cost risk• Reliable baseload electric capacity• Opportunity to provide thermal output (CHP)Cons:• Capital intensive• Lower efficiency than some natural gas plants• Higher emissions than other options (i.e., gas, wind, solar)
  • 12. Combustion Turbine Power PlantsOptional Message Placement
  • 13. Combustion Turbine Generators … AKAGas TurbinesBrayton Cycle
  • 14. Simple Cycle CTG Efficiency - 35-45%
  • 15. Derived from GE CF-6 Jet Engine – First used on DC-10: 25-30MW, 38%
  • 16. 45-50MW, 41%
  • 17. In Real Life …2 – LMS 100, 200MW
  • 18. Combined Cycle Power PlantsOptional Message Placement
  • 19. Brayton + Rankine Cycle = Combined Cycle
  • 20. Combined Cycle Efficiencies 50-60%
  • 21. 2x1 501F Combined Cycle in Florida, 500MW
  • 22. Characteristics Simple Cycle – Operate to meet Peak Demand – Designed for Quick Start-up – Not as Efficient, but Reliable Peaking Power – Little to no water consumption Combined Cycle – Reliable - Operate for Intermediate or Base Load – Highest Fossil Fuel Efficiency – Can be designed to operate in Simple Cycle ModeIncreased Efficiency, but utilize premium fuels
  • 23. Combined Cycle RepoweringOptional Message Placement
  • 24. Combined Cycle Repowering Using a combustion turbine generator & HRSG to replace an existing boiler. The existing steam turbine generator and auxiliaries are re-used. Significant increase in electrical output & plant efficiency. When replacing a coal fired boiler with a natural gas fired combustion turbine, significant reductions in emissions are realized. Less capital cost than a new combined cycle plant due to the re-use of existing equipment and systems.
  • 25. Cogeneration / Combined Heat & Power (CHP)Optional Message Placement
  • 26. • By utilizing otherwise rejected or wasted heat from the electricity generation process (losses) to produce a useful form of thermal energy (hot water, steam, etc.), the overall efficiency can be dramatically increased.• Increased energy efficiency can save money!• Increased energy efficiency can reduce environmental effects.Cogeneration – Sequential generation of electricity & useful heat
  • 27. Overall Cogeneration Efficiencies can reach 70-80%
  • 28. Combined Cycle Cogeneration
  • 29. Wind Power
  • 30. Wind Turbine Types
  • 31. Wind Farm Components
  • 32. Michigan Wind Power Resources Typical “rule of thumb” is that an average annual wind speed of 15-16mph at the turbine hub height is desirable.
  • 33. Wind Power Characteristics•Renewable energy resource – wind is free!•No toxic air emissions – Sox, Nox, Hg, PM,CO2, etc.•Proven technology•Intermittent resource – Low capacity factor,typ. 25-35%•Very large land area required – 20-80acres/MW•Potential environmental impacts – noise,bird/bat mortality, aesthetics, shadowflicker
  • 34. Solar Power
  • 35. Solar Power• Photovoltaic – PV • Crystalline Silicon, 17-20% • Crystalline Silicon (ribbon), 12% • Thin Film, 8-12% • Tracking – fixed, single axis and double axis• Concentrated Solar Power – CSP • Linear fresnel – 400-500F • Parabolic trough – 750F • Power tower – 1000F • Stirling Engine
  • 36. ERROR: stackunderflowOFFENDING COMMAND: ~STACK: