SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 30
Department of Mechanical Engineering
UET Lahore (New Campus)
CEP Thermodynamics-2
Submitted by:
Asad Nawaz
Registration No:
2022-ME-352
Contact number:
0345-3954837
G-mail account:
2022me352@student.uet.edu.pk , asadnawaz580gb@gmail.com
Submitting Date:
08 - 03 - 2024
Submitted to:
Dr. Zahid Anwar
Following tasks are solved in this CEP of thermodynamics.
Task 1: Project Overview and Proposal
1.1. Provide an overview of the combined cycle power plant using biomass, explaining the
integration of gas and steam turbines.
1.2. Propose a suitable location within the province of Punjab, considering environmental
factors, biomass availability, and proximity to demand centres.
Task 2: Biomass Selection and Consumption Estimation
2.1. Discuss the types of biomasses suitable for power generation in Punjab.
2.2. Calculate the estimated biomass consumption based on the power plant's capacity and
efficiency.
Task 3: Environmental Impact Assessment
3.1. Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion and compare them with local
environmental legislation.
3.2. Analyze the environmental impact of the biomass-based combined cycle power plant and
propose mitigation measures.
Task 4: Economic Analysis
4.1. Calculate the initial capital costs for setting up the biomass-based power plant.
4.2. Estimate operational and maintenance costs associated with biomass fuel.
4.3. Conduct a financial analysis, including payback period, return on investment, and net
present value.
Task 5: Comparison with Alternative Energy Sources
5.1. Investigate alternative energy sources within Punjab, such as solar, wind, and
hydropower.
5.2. Compare the environmental and economic aspects of the biomass-based combined cycle
power plant with alternative energy sources.
Task 1: Project Overview and Proposal
1.1. Provide an overview of the combined cycle power plant using biomass,
explaining the integration of gas and steam turbines.
Biomass Combined Cycle Power:
A biomass combined cycle power plant is a type of power generation facility that utilizes
biomass as its primary fuel source to produce electricity. The term "combined cycle" refers to
the utilization of two different thermodynamic cycles to generate power efficiently.
Figure 1: combined cycle power plant
A biomass combined cycle power plant makes electricity in two main steps:
1. Biomass Conversion:
• First, biomass materials like wood chips, pellets, or energy crops are burned in
a special furnace.
• When burned, these materials produce hot gases.
• Sometimes, these hot gases are turned into a cleaner-burning gas called syngas
through a process called gasification.
2. Dual Power Generation:
• The hot gases or syngas spin a turbine, which is like a really big windmill, to
make electricity (this is called the gas turbine cycle).
• Even after spinning the turbine, the hot gases still have useful heat left.
• This leftover heat is used to make steam in a boiler, which is called a heat
recovery steam generator.
• The steam made in the boiler is high-pressure and spins another turbine, called
a steam turbine, to make even more electricity (this is the steam turbine cycle).
By doing these two steps together, the power plant can get more energy out of the fuel it uses,
making it more efficient than traditional methods.
integration of gas and steam turbines:
A biomass combined cycle power plant has gas turbine power plant and steam turbine power
plant working cycle to increase the efficiency of system.
integration of gas turbine:
The gas turbine power plant operates on the Brayton cycle, which is a thermodynamic cycle
that describes the functioning of a constant pressure heat engine. Here's an explanation of
the Brayton cycle as it applies to a gas turbine power plant:
Figure 2: Brayton cycle
1. Compression (Adiabatic Process):
• Air is drawn into the compressor of the gas turbine power plant.
• The compressor increases the pressure of the incoming air by reducing its
volume.
• This compression process is typically adiabatic, meaning there is no heat
exchange with the surroundings, and it occurs rapidly.
2. Combustion (Constant Pressure Process):
• The compressed air is then directed into the combustion chamber where it mixes
with fuel (typically natural gas, diesel, or aviation fuel).
• The mixture is ignited, and combustion occurs, producing high-temperature,
high-pressure gases.
• The combustion process happens at constant pressure because the combustion
chamber is designed to maintain a relatively constant pressure while allowing
the gases to expand as they heat up.
3. Expansion (Adiabatic Process):
• The hot gases generated in the combustion chamber expand through the gas
turbine.
• As the gases flow through the turbine blades, they drive the turbine rotor,
converting the thermal energy of the gases into mechanical energy.
• This expansion process is adiabatic, meaning there is no heat exchange with the
surroundings, and it also occurs rapidly.
4. Exhaust (Constant Pressure Process):
• After passing through the gas turbine, the exhaust gases exit the turbine at a
lower pressure and temperature.
• The exhaust gases are expelled through the exhaust system into the atmosphere.
• The pressure in the exhaust system is maintained relatively constant, allowing
for efficient expulsion of the gases.
The Brayton cycle in a gas turbine power plant is characterized by two adiabatic processes
(compression and expansion) and two constant pressure processes (combustion and exhaust).
It is a thermodynamically efficient cycle for converting the chemical energy of the fuel into
mechanical energy and ultimately into electrical energy.
integration of steam turbine:
A steam turbine power plant operates on the Rankine cycle, which is a thermodynamic cycle
that describes the functioning of steam-based power generation systems. Here's an
explanation of the Rankine cycle as it applies to a steam turbine power plant, along with its
main components and their functions:
Figure 3: Rankine cycle
1. Boiler:
• The boiler is a crucial component where water is heated to generate steam.
• Heat is typically supplied to the boiler through the combustion of fossil fuels
(such as coal, natural gas, or oil), nuclear reactions, or other heat sources.
• The high-temperature steam generated in the boiler is often superheated to
increase its energy content.
2. Steam Turbine:
• The high-pressure steam produced in the boiler is directed into the steam
turbine.
• The steam expands through the turbine blades, causing them to rotate.
• The rotational energy of the turbine shaft is used to drive an electric generator,
converting the mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy.
3. Condenser:
• After passing through the turbine, the low-pressure steam exits into the
condenser.
• In the condenser, the steam is condensed back into water by transferring its heat
to a cooling medium (such as water from a cooling tower or a nearby river).
• The condensation process reduces the pressure of the steam, allowing it to be
pumped back into the boiler for reheating.
4. Feedwater Pump:
• The feedwater pump is responsible for pumping water from the condenser into
the boiler.
• It increases the pressure of the water to ensure proper operation of the boiler
and steam cycle.
5. Cooling System:
• The cooling system is used to remove waste heat from the condenser and
maintain its efficiency.
• Depending on the design of the power plant, cooling may be achieved through
the use of cooling towers, surface water bodies, or other cooling mediums.
6. Generator:
• The generator is coupled to the steam turbine shaft and converts the rotational
mechanical energy produced by the turbine into electrical energy.
• The electricity generated by the generator is then transmitted to the electrical
grid for distribution to consumers.
Steam turbine power plants are widely used for large-scale electricity generation due to their
efficiency.
1.2. Propose a suitable location within the province of Punjab, considering
environmental factors, biomass availability, and proximity to demand centers.
environmental factors:
• optimum temperature of okara is 10-20C in winter and is 20-35C in summer which is
suitable operating temperature of biomass combined cycle power plant.
• There are many un-cultivated places in okara to build biomass combined cycle power
plant with low price.
• Water is available in large amount which can be used for cooling systems.
• Less air pollution should be created due large number of trees.
• The waste products can be easily managed in the un-cultivated areas of okara.
• Weather conditions like humidity, pressures and water vapours are available in the
normal range to avoid environmental corrosion power plant.
biomass availability:
Rice straw:
rice straw per acre = 1tone
since cultivated in Okara of rice is 383000acre [1].
Total amount of rice straw in Okara = 383000x1 tones
Total amount of rice straw in kg = 383000x25x40 = 383𝑋106
kg
Maize straw:
maize straw per acre = 2tone
since cultivated in Okara of rice is 104600acre [2].
Total amount of rice straw in Okara = 104600x2tones
Total amount of rice straw in kg = 104600x25x40x2 = 209.2𝑥106
kg
Total amount of Rice straw and Maize straw = 383𝑥106
kg + 209.2𝑥106
kg
[Note: we can use a single straw for production of 500MW electricity but to avoid the huge
store and transfer of waste products from away areas, both straws are used in combined cycle
power plant.]
proximity to demand centers:
As we know that okara is an agricultural district of Punjab. It required a large amount of water
for the production agricultural products. To get this amount of water a huge amount of oil is
burned which is very expensive.
1st
demand centre: Agriculture field
2nd
demand centre: domestic purpose
[note: both demand centres are find by visiting different places of okara.]
Considering all the above factors 40-D of Okara is best place for biomass combined cycle
power plant.
Task 2: Biomass Selection and Consumption Estimation
2.1. Discuss the types of biomass suitable for power generation in Punjab.
In the province of Punjab there are many biomasses which can be used as a fuel in the combined
cycle power plant. But to avoid the huge price of biomasses only those biomasses are used for
these purposes which are waste products of many agriculture things.
• Rice Straw
• Corn Cobs
• Cotton Stalk
• Wheat Straw
• Bajra Stalk
• Sugarcane bagasse
• Maize stalks
• Soybean stalks
• Oat straw
• Apple Pruning
• Mango Prunings
• Fallen Leaves
• Weed Residues
• Dry form of banana trees
• Dry form of steams of vegetables
Now I discus the waste products of agricultural things that are present in the district
Okara according to servy of Okara 2021-2020 where the combined cycle power plant
has been set.
• Rice Straw
• Maize(Corn) straw
• Wheat Straw
• Stems of vegetables(potatoes)
• Fallen Leaves
• Other things in mild quantity are Bajra Stalk, Cotton Stalk and Sugarcane bagasse
These are waste products which are used in the combined cycle power plant. To get specific
amount of electricity, a huge amount of these products is required in the power plant. If a single
waste product can be used in the power plant, it is difficult to collect the required amount of
waste products because it depends on season.
To avoid such difficulties two or more waste products should use. So, our biomass combined
cycle power plant will use Rice Straw and Maize (Corn) straw due to easy and negligible prices.
We have to afford the price only to carry from different places of Okara to the power plant.
2.2. Calculate the estimated biomass consumption based on the power plant's
capacity and efficiency.
power plant's capacity:
according to given information, we have to calculate amount of biomass product which can
generate the electric power of 500MW.
power plant's efficiency :
The efficiency of fuel combined cycle power plant is greater than 50%. But the efficiency of
biomass combined cycle power plant is lower than the fuel combined cycle power plant since
fuel has higher thermal efficiency than waste products. Its means that a large amount of biomass
is required for to get the same power production.
Bhikki power plant have a net combined-cycle efficiency of more than 64%. Taking reference
Bhikki, efficiency of power plant is 64%.
Mass of rice straw (for six month)
Efficiency of the combined cycle power plant = 64% [3]
Energy content of the dry rice straw =14 MJ/kg [4]
we convert the power output from MW to Joules:
500𝑀𝑊 = 500 × 106
𝑊 = 500 × 106
𝐽/𝑠
Second in six months = 6x24x60x60=561600 sec
Now power into six months:
500 × 106
× 561600 = 2.8 × 1014
𝐽/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ
The mass of rice straw needed into six months:
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 =
2.8 × 1014
14 × 106
= 20 × 106
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
Since, 64% mass of rice straw is convert into energy.
So,
=
20 × 106
0.64
= 31.25 × 106
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
Amount of biomass which is required into six month of rice straw.
Mass of maize straw (for six month)
Efficiency of the combined cycle power plant = 64%
Energy content of the dry maize straw =18.6 MJ/kg (google)
we convert the power output from MW to Joules:
500𝑀𝑊 = 500 × 106
𝑊 = 500 × 106
𝐽/𝑠
Second in six months = 6x24x60x60=561600 sec
Now power into six months:
500 × 106
× 561600 = 2.8 × 1014
𝐽/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ
The mass of rice straw needed into six months:
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 =
2.8 × 1014
18.6 × 106
= 1.51 × 108
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
Since, 64% mass of rice straw is convert into energy.
So,
=
1.51 × 108
0.64
= 23.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
Amount of biomass which is required into six months of maize straw.
Total amount of waste product:
total amount of biomass required per year = mass of maize straw + mass of rice straw
= 20 × 106
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 + 23.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
= 43.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔/year
Task 3: Environmental Impact Assessment
3.1. Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion and compare them
with local environmental legislation.
Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion:
A rice and corn straw contains following same components
1. Carbon (C): Present in cellulose(𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5), hemicellulose(𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4), and
lignin(𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3).
2. Hydrogen (H): Present in cellulose, hemicellulose, and organic matter.
3. Oxygen (O): Present in cellulose, hemicellulose, and water.
4. Nitrogen (N): Present in proteins and organic matter.
5. Sulfur (S): Present in trace amounts in proteins and organic matter.
6. Phosphorus (P): Present in trace amounts in proteins and organic matter.
7. Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and other minerals: Present in trace
amounts in ash.
These are all present in the rice and corn straw but the major part of straw is formed carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen. Consider the complete reaction,
𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 𝑎(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 𝑥𝐶𝑂2 + 𝑦𝐻2𝑂 + 𝑧𝑁2
C-balance:
X=6+5+9
X=20 moles
H-balance:
Y=5+4+5
Y=14 moles
O-balance:
2a+3+4+5=20(2) +14(1)
2a+12=40+14
2a=40+14-12
2a=42
a=42/2
a=21
N-balance:
a(2) =z(2)
z=21
now, the balance equation is
𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 21(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 20𝐶𝑂2 + 14𝐻2𝑂 + 21𝑁2
This equation shows that when one mole of rice or corn burn then 20 moles of carbon dioxide
and 21 moles of nitrogen are produced.
Mass of CO2 and N2 produced per year from biomass-based combined cycle
power plant:
Addition of CO2:
As we know that
𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 21(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 20𝐶𝑂2 + 14𝐻2𝑂 + 21𝑁2
1 mole of straw = 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3
Now molar mass of the 1 mole straw,
Molar mass 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 = 162.16𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒
Molar mass 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 = 132.13𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒
Molar mass 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 = 166.19𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒
Molar mass of 1 mole straw = 460.48 g/mole
N=m/M
m=NM
m=1x460.48
m=460.48 g
so,
460.48g straw = 1 mole of straw
1kg straw = 1mole/o.46048 = 2.17 moles
43.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔 of straw = 9.45x107
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑤
So, total number of moles of CO2 generated when 43.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔 of straw is burned.
Number of moles of CO2= 20 x 9.45x107
moles
= 1.89x109
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠
Now, mass of CO2 adds per year in the environment is
N=m/M
m=NM
m= 1.89x109
𝑋48
𝑚 = 9.1x1010
𝑘𝑔/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
Addition of N2:
total number of moles of N2 generated when 43.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔 of straw is burned.
Number of moles of N2= 21 x 43.52x106
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠
= 9.1x108
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠
Now, mass of N2 adds per year in the environment is
N=m/M
m=NM
m= 9.1x108
𝑋28
𝑚 = 2.548x1010
𝑘𝑔/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
Instead of this there are many pollutants are produced during this combustion like nitrogen gas
(N2), sulfur oxides (SOx), phosphorus oxides (POx) , potassium oxide (𝐾2𝑂), calcium oxide (CaO),
magnesium oxide (MgO), and other substances. But there is a problem to find their quantities because
they are present in the tracer amount.
compare with local environmental legislation:
Mass Comparison:
The mass of CO₂ is 9.1 × 10¹⁰ grams, N₂ is 2.548 × 10¹⁰ grams.
Environmental Legislation in Pakistan:
The Pakistan EPA allowed the 2.5PM (particles matter) in the environments. If this amount
increases then it can be dangerous for the environments.
3.2. Analyze the environmental impact of the biomass-based combined cycle
power plant and propose mitigation measures.
1. Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) Emissions:
o Emission Process:
▪ When rice straw is burned, it undergoes combustion, releasing CO₂ into the atmosphere.
▪ The carbon stored in the straw combines with oxygen during burning, resulting in the
production of CO₂.
o Environmental Impact:
▪ Global Warming: CO₂ is a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming.
According to world estimate the temperature rise is one trillionth of a degree Celsius
when 1kg CO2 adds in environments.
▪ Climate Change: Increased CO₂ levels contribute to changes in climate patterns, rising
temperatures, and altered weather conditions.
▪ Ocean Acidification: Excess CO₂ is absorbed by oceans, leading to acidification and
affecting marine ecosystems.
▪ Carbon Cycle: While CO₂ emissions from straw burning are significant, they are
considered part of the natural carbon cycle (photosynthesis and respiration).
o Mitigation Strategies:
▪ Sustainable Biomass Sourcing: Promoting sustainable forestry practices and
agricultural residue management can help maintain or increase carbon stocks in
biomass feedstocks, thereby ensuring that the CO2 emitted during combustion is offset
by the carbon sequestered during biomass growth.
▪ Efficient Combustion Technologies: Adopting advanced combustion technologies
such as fluidized bed combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis can improve the efficiency
of biomass combustion, reducing CO2 emissions per unit of energy produced.
▪ Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Implementing combined heat and power systems
allows for the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heat, improving overall
energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions compared to separate heat and power
generation.
▪ Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): CCS technologies capture CO2 emissions from
biomass combustion and store them underground or utilize them for enhanced oil
recovery, preventing CO2 from entering the atmosphere.
▪ Biochar Production: Biomass pyrolysis can produce biochar, a stable form of carbon
that can be used as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility,
thereby offsetting CO2 emissions.
2. Nitrogen Gas (N₂) Emissions:
o Emission Process:
▪ During straw burning, some nitrogen gas (N₂) is also released.
▪ N₂ itself is not a greenhouse gas, but its compounds (such as nitrous oxide, N₂O)
contribute to global warming.
o Environmental Impact:
▪ Nitrous Oxide (N₂O): N₂O is a potent greenhouse gas with a much higher warming
potential than CO₂.
▪ Water Pollution: Excessive nitrogen emissions can lead to water pollution and affect
aquatic ecosystems.
▪ Air Quality: Straw burning also emits other gaseous pollutants (SO₂, NOx, HCl,
dioxins, and furans).
o Mitigation Strategies:
▪ Optimized Combustion Conditions: Adjusting combustion parameters such as air-to-
fuel ratio, temperature, and residence time can optimize combustion efficiency and
minimize N2 formation, reducing N2 emissions.
▪ Low-Nitrogen Biomass Feedstocks: Selecting biomass feedstocks with low nitrogen
content can reduce the potential for N2 emissions during combustion. Proper biomass
management practices, such as composting and anaerobic digestion, can also minimize
nitrogen losses.
▪ Flue Gas Treatment: Implementing flue gas treatment technologies such as selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) can remove
nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases before they are emitted, reducing N2 emissions.
▪ Emission Control Systems: Installing particulate matter filters and electrostatic
precipitators in biomass combustion systems can capture nitrogen-containing
particulates and prevent their release into the atmosphere.
▪ Combustion Optimization: Continuous monitoring and optimization of combustion
processes can help minimize excess air and reduce nitrogen oxidation, leading to lower
N2 emissions.
▪ Implementing these mitigation measures can help reduce the environmental impact of
CO2 and N2 emissions from biomass energy production while improving overall
efficiency and sustainability.
In summary, while burning rice straw contributes to CO₂ and N₂ emissions, sustainable
utilization methods and soil carbon sequestration play crucial roles in mitigating their effects.
Task 4: Economic Analysis
4.1. Calculate the initial capital costs for setting up the biomass-based power
plant.
The initial capital cost for setting up the biomass combined cycle power plant is depending
upon many factors such location, variety of mechanical instruments and design etc. The size
biomass combined cycle power plant is at least 30 acre [5] and extra place for the storage of
biomass should be 30 acres to store a huge quantity of biomass fuels. Now, I discus the price
components of combined cycle power plant which are received from different sources [6].
Name Minimum price Maximum price Average price
Place for power plant 5.3$ million 10.6$ million 7.95$ million
Generator of steam 40$ million 60$ million 50$ million
steam turbine boiler
system
300$ million 600$ million 450$ million
Pump 2$ million 5$ million 3.5$ million
Heat recovery steam
generator (HRSG)
80$ million 120$ million 100$ million
Gas turbine system 400$ million 800$ million 600$ million
Place of waste storge 5.3$ million 10.6$ million 7.95$ million
Hot water supply
system
0.007$ million
Civil and architectural
works
0.028$ million
Transportation 0.0085$ million
Consulting service 0.0045$ million
Total 1219.445$ million
To set up a new combined cycle power plant, the average value 1219.445$ million are required.
4.2. Estimate operational and maintenance costs associated with biomass fuel.
Now, we discuss the operational and maintenance cost of biomass combined
cycle power plant:
Biomass cost:
Actually, some waste products have few prices but many waste products are presents free of
cost. The farmer burned these waste products to clean up their fields. But our biomass
combined cycle power plant uses only rice straw and corn straw which are in district Okara in
large amount and there is no price of these straws.
[Note: the knowledge of free of cost was received by visiting different areas in Okara]
Biomass transportation cost:
Biomass transportation has two costs, one is collecting cost of waste products by labours and
other is reaching cost to waste product in the power plant.
By Labour transportation cost:
To collect the required straw from different fields the price,
Per acre collection price of straw = 2000 Rupees [by visiting]
The 362666.67 acre are required to collect 43.52 × 106
𝑘𝑔 of straw.
Total collection price of waste products = 362666.67x2000
= 7.3𝑋108
𝑟𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑠
= 2.57$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
By Vehicle’s transportation cost:
As we know that the labour transportation cost is equal to the vehicle’s transportation cost.
So,
Total transportation cost by vehicles = 2.57$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
Net transportation cost = 5.14$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
Labour cost:
Now, we discuss the labour cost to run the biomass combined cycle power plant [7].
Vacancy name Salaries range Average salary Person
range
Average
range
Total salaries
Of required
persons
Plant
Operators
$40000-$80000 $60000 18-20 19 $1140000
Maintenance
Technicians
$30000-$60000 $45000 18-20 19 $855000
Engineers $60000-$120000 $90000 22-30 26 $2340000
Administrative
Staff
$30000-$60000 $45000 18-20 19 $855000
Management
and
Supervision
$80000-$200000 $140000 16-22 19 $2660000
total $7850000
=7.85$ million
Net operational and maintenance cost per year = 7.85$ million + 5.14$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
= 12.99$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
4.3. Conduct a financial analysis, including payback period, return on investment,
and net present value.
Electric power produced = 500MW = 500000 KW
Hours in eleven working months = 11 x 30 x 24 = 7200 hour
[Note: 1month power is under maintenance]
Power produced in year = 500000 x 7200
= 3.6𝑋109
𝐾𝑊/ℎ
= 3.6𝑋109
𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠
Price of single unit of electricity in Pakistan = 22 rupees
Price of 3.6𝑋109
𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 in Pakistan = 3.6 𝑋 109
𝑋 22
= 7.92𝑋1010
𝑟𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑠
= $278.9 𝑋 106
Earn money from biomass combined power plant in one year = 278.9$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
Total initial setting cost of biomass combined cycle power plant = 1219.445$ million
Total operational and maintenance cost in one year = 12.99$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
Now,
Earn money in five years = 5𝑋 278.9$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
= 1394.5$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
Total operational and maintenance cost in 5 year = 5 X 12.99
= 64.95$ million
Profit in five years = 1394.5$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 64.95$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
= 1329.55$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
So,
This calculation shows that our investment will return after 5 years.
Task 5: Comparison with Alternative Energy Sources
5.1. Investigate alternative energy sources within Punjab, such as solar, wind, and
hydropower.
Solar energy
Working principle:
Solar energy is the process of capturing sunlight and converting it into electricity or heat. Solar
panels absorb sunlight on a semiconductor material, creating electron and hole pairs. Other
uses include concentrating solar energy systems for turbines and thermal mass for internal
heating. Solar energy offers a clean, renewable alternative to finite fossil fuels.
Figure 4: working cycle of solar energy power plant
The average efficiency of a solar power plant is between 18% and 30%.
Components:
Now, we discuss the major components of solar power plant.
Photovoltaic panel:
Photovoltaic panels are flat boxes with cells made of silicon, which generate electricity when
sunlight hits them. The electrons move in one direction, generating electricity. The cells are
connected to create a larger module or panel, amplifying the amount of electricity produced.
The solar-generated electricity is initially DC, but most homes and appliances require AC. An
inverter converts DC into AC for easy use. PV panels convert sunlight into usable electricity
without pollution or depletion of non-renewable resources.
Inverter:
An Inverter is essential in a solar energy system as it converts Direct Current (DC) electricity
from solar panels into AC power, compatible with standard household and business appliances.
This helps bridge the gap between solar panels and electronics, making solar electricity
accessible and beneficial for users. Inverters come in various shapes and sizes, ranging from
rooftop-sized to utility-scale models, ensuring efficient device operation and cost savings.
Mounting structure:
A mounting system helps hold solar panels in place so they work well in turning sunlight into
electricity. It comes in different styles like those for roofs, the ground, tall poles, or special
setups. This keeps the panels safe and makes sure we get the most out of the sun's energy.
Solar batteries:
Solar batteries are devices that store energy from sunlight for later use, usually when the sun is
not shining or at night. They help make solar power more reliable and usable by providing a
way to store excess electricity generated during daylight hours and release it when needed.
Which means your home or business won't be dependent on utility companies for electricity.
Instead, it will generate its own clean, renewable energy from the sun.
Charger controller:
A charge controller is an electronic device in off-grid solar energy systems that manages power
from solar panels and batteries to prevent overcharging and deep discharging. It limits the rate
of charge and prevents reverse current flow, ensuring electricity flows safely and efficiently
between the system. This helps maintain the system's overall health and longevity by
preventing overcharging and deep discharging, and ensuring the system's longevity.
Wind energy
Working principle:
Wind energy is using the wind's force to generate electricity. Turbines (machines with rotating
blades) convert kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy, which then drives an
electrical generator to produce clean, renewable power. The amount of electricity produced
depends on factors like turbine size, blade design, and wind speed. By harnessing this natural
resource, we can create a sustainable source of energy for homes, businesses, and communities.
Figure 5: components of wind energy power plant
The average efficiency of a wind energy power plant is between 20% and 40%.
Components:
Now, we discuss the major components of wind energy power plant.
Wind turbine:
A wind turbine converts wind energy into mechanical power for electricity generation. It
consists of blades, rotor, and tower. Wind blows, blades turn rotor, spinning generator.
Electricity is sent to grid for distribution.
Rotor blades:
Rotor blades in wind turbines are large air foils that spin around a central axis, converting
wind's kinetic energy into rotational motion. They drive the generator and produce electricity.
Modern turbines use two or three lightweight blades, typically made from fiberglass or carbon
fibre.
Hub:
The hub on a wind turbine connects rotor blades to the shaft, facilitating smooth rotation and
torque transfer. It contains bearings, sensors, and control systems for optimal performance. The
hub transmits wind energy to the generator, generating electric.
Shaft:
The shaft on a wind turbine is a cylindrical component that transfers rotational motion from
rotor blades to the generator. Made of durable materials like steel, it connects the rotor and
gearbox, generating electrical energy from the spinning of the shaft.
Gearbox:
The gearbox in a wind turbine increases the rotational motion of the rotor blades to match the
generator's input requirements. Typically, rotor blades rotate slowly, but generators require
higher speeds. The gearbox ensures efficient energy conversion by utilizing gears and other
mechanical components.
Tower:
A wind turbine tower is a tall vertical pole supporting the nacelle, containing key components
like blades, rotor, gearbox, generator, and brakes, boosting efficiency and power output by
lifting them above the ground.
Control system:
A control system, a combination of hardware and software, regulates machine actions,
maintains consistency, optimizes performance, and ensures safety by precise manipulation of
variables.
Hydropower
Working principle:
Hydropower is a renewable energy source that uses water to generate electricity. It involves a
water source, turbine, and generator, which converts the water's energy into electricity.
Hydropower is cost-effective, reliable, and clean, making it a valuable resource for integrating
variable renewable energy sources like wind and solar.
Figure 6: working cycle of hydropower plant
The efficiency of hydropower plant is about 90% which is higher than any other source like
wind power plant, solar energy power plant and coal energy power plant.
Components:
Now, we discuss the major components of hydropower plant
Water diversion:
Water diversion is the redirection of water flow to prevent water-related damage, using
methods like barriers, ditches, or pumps. It protects structures, land, and assets from water
accumulation. It's used in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. In hydropower
systems, it directs water from a source to a turbine for electricity generation.
Penstock:
A penstock is a crucial pipeline in a hydropower system, transporting water from a source to a
turbine, which generates electricity. Materials like steel or concrete can be used, and their size
and length vary.
Turbine and generator:
Hydropower systems utilize turbines to convert water's kinetic energy into mechanical energy,
which is then used to power a generator. Wind energy systems use wind to turn blades, while
solar power systems convert DC electricity into AC electricity. The generator is a crucial
component in these systems, as most household appliances require AC electricity.
Tailrace:
A tailrace is a channel or canal in a hydropower system that transports water from a turbine
after generating electricity. It ensures efficient and safe water removal, reduces system damage,
and maintains water flow and quality, protecting aquatic ecosystems and the environment.
Transmission wires:
Transmission wires, made of aluminium or copper, transmit high-voltage electricity from the
generating station to the distribution system. They reduce energy loss and ensure efficient
transmission over long distances. The wires are connected to the generator, which produces
electricity from water's mechanical energy.
5.2. Compare the environmental and economic aspects of the biomass-based
combined cycle power plant with alternative energy sources.
Environmental aspects:
Solar energy power plant:
Solar energy is considered a clean energy source because it doesn't produce greenhouse gases,
contribute to air or water pollution, or emit toxic gases. However, solar energy can have some
environmental impacts, including:
1. Land Use: Solar energy needs a lot of land, which can affect the plants and animals
living there.
2. Habitat Loss: Cutting down trees and plants to set up solar panels can disturb the
balance of nature in that area.
3. Ecosystem Disruption: Building roads and power lines for solar energy can break up
habitats, disturb animals, and bring in new plants and animals that don't belong there.
4. Toxic Materials: Making solar panels involves using some chemicals that can harm
the environment if not handled properly.
Wind energy power plant:
It is also clean source of energy because it does not produce any pollutants during producing
electricity.
1. Visual impact: Wind turbines are large machines that can visually affect the landscape.
2. Noise: Wind turbine blades make noise as they turn in the wind.
3. Bird and bat deaths: Birds and bats can be injured or killed if they are hit by turbine
blades.
4. Habitat fragmentation: Rows of turbines and connecting roads can fragment habitats.
5. Specialized vegetation: Specialized, endemic ridge-top vegetation may be
disproportionately affected.
6. Downwind sand dunes: Downwind sand dunes might be altered.
7. Displacement: Birds and bats may be displaced from their areas, causing changes in
migration routes and loss of quality habitat.
8. Marine life: The physical presence of offshore wind farms may alter the behavior of
marine mammals, fish, and seabirds by reasons of either attraction or avoidance.
9. Underwater noise: Underwater noise may be associated with the installation process
of monopile turbines.
Hydropower energy power plant:
There is no any pollutant are produced during the production of electricity. So, it is a clean way
to produce the electricity. It has some following effects on environments are,
1. Fish migration: Dams can obstruct fish migration.
2. Water temperatures: Dams and reservoirs can change natural water temperatures.
3. Fish kills: Hydropower turbines can kill and injure fish.
4. Reservoirs: Reservoirs can change natural water temperatures.
5. Wildlife impacts: Hydroelectric facilities can have a major impact on aquatic
ecosystems.
6. Global warming emissions: Global warming emissions are produced during the
installation and dismantling of hydroelectric power plants.
7. Landscape changes: Reservoirs drastically change the landscape and rivers they are
built on.
8. River flow reduction: Dams and reservoirs can reduce river flows.
9. Water quality degradation: Dams and reservoirs can degrade water quality.
10. Sediment build up: Dams and reservoirs can cause sediment to build up.
Environmental Impact Comparison:
By the comparison, it is shows that there are no pollutants are created during the production of
electricity. These sources only add pollution only their manufacturing. Other environmental
impacts are very small by these sources.
Economic aspects:
Solar energy power plant:
A standard solar panel is about 17–18 square feet
To produce 1MW power the number of plates = 3500-4000 panels
To produce 500MW power the number of plates = 1750000-2000000 panels
The price of standard solar panel plate = $240 [8]
Now,
The price of 2000000 plates = $240 X 2000000
= 480$ million
4050 plates are present in one acre. So, total 1250 acre are required for 2 million plates.
Price of one acre = 5000000 rupees
Price of 1250 acre = 1250 X 5000000
= 6250000000 rupees
= 22.01$ million
So,
Net price of solar energy power plant = 480$ million + 22.01$ million
= 502.01$ million
Wind energy power plant:
1 hydropower turbine can produce = 10MW
So, the total number of hydropower turbines are required to produce 500MW are 50 turbines.
Price of single turbine = 8$ million [9]
Price 250 turbines = 50 x 8$ million
= 200$ million
Two acres spacing is required between each wind to avoid disturbance.
Total required acres = 2 x 250
= 500 acres
Price of 500 acres = 500 x 5000000 = 250000000
= 0.8802$ million
Net price of solar energy power plant = 1500$ million + 0.8802$ million
= 1500.88$ million
Hydropower plant:
1 turbine can produce = 10MW
So, the total number of turbines are required to produce 500MW are 50 turbines.
Price of single turbine = 8$ million [10]
Price 250 turbines = 50 x 8$ million
= 200$ million
In this case, only major cost is infrastructural and land cost, which is round about 1$ billion.
Net price of hydropower plant = 200$ million + 1000$ million
= 1200$ million
Economic Comparison:
Now, compare the setting values of all power plants
Solar energy power plant = 502.01$ million
Hydropower plant = 1200$ million
Biomass combined cycle power plant = 1219.445$ million
Wind energy power plant = 1500.88$ million
This comparison shows that to get 500MW power as a output, the easiest and low price power
plant is solar energy power plant but it uses more land than other power plants.
Recommendations:
Reminding all the above calculation, the Punjab province has enough amount of waste product
of many types which are available in all season. By using this amount of waste product, the
shortage of electric power in Punjab can be overcome.
References:
[1]. Servy of okara 2020-2021
[2]. Servy of okara 2020-2021
[3]. Bhikki power plant
[4] google
[5] Bhikki
[6] Alibaba, hasab website, google
[7] Alibaba, hasab website, google, chatgbt
[8] Alibaba
[9] Alibaba
[10] Alibaba

More Related Content

Similar to complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass combined cycle power plant..pdf

Similar to complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass combined cycle power plant..pdf (20)

Thermal Power Plant or Thermal Energy (Chapter-2)
Thermal Power Plant or Thermal Energy (Chapter-2)Thermal Power Plant or Thermal Energy (Chapter-2)
Thermal Power Plant or Thermal Energy (Chapter-2)
 
Mtps ppt
Mtps pptMtps ppt
Mtps ppt
 
Project Report on “WORKING MODEL OF POWER GRID/SMART GRID
Project Report on “WORKING MODEL OF POWER GRID/SMART GRIDProject Report on “WORKING MODEL OF POWER GRID/SMART GRID
Project Report on “WORKING MODEL OF POWER GRID/SMART GRID
 
Steam power plants
Steam power plantsSteam power plants
Steam power plants
 
Power cycles
Power cyclesPower cycles
Power cycles
 
NTPC ,sipat voccational training
NTPC ,sipat voccational trainingNTPC ,sipat voccational training
NTPC ,sipat voccational training
 
Thermal power plant
Thermal power plantThermal power plant
Thermal power plant
 
Ppt of internship at dccpp
Ppt of internship at dccppPpt of internship at dccpp
Ppt of internship at dccpp
 
SUMMER TRAINING AT NTPC DADRI GAS SECTION
SUMMER TRAINING AT NTPC DADRI GAS SECTIONSUMMER TRAINING AT NTPC DADRI GAS SECTION
SUMMER TRAINING AT NTPC DADRI GAS SECTION
 
Thermal power plant
Thermal power plantThermal power plant
Thermal power plant
 
Epa of cogen
Epa of cogenEpa of cogen
Epa of cogen
 
Internship Report on thermal power station in vizag steel plant
Internship Report on thermal power station in vizag steel plantInternship Report on thermal power station in vizag steel plant
Internship Report on thermal power station in vizag steel plant
 
Presentation sai,varun.
Presentation sai,varun.Presentation sai,varun.
Presentation sai,varun.
 
Ppt aman
Ppt amanPpt aman
Ppt aman
 
Steam Power Plant
Steam Power Plant Steam Power Plant
Steam Power Plant
 
Thermal power plant
Thermal power plantThermal power plant
Thermal power plant
 
New Presentation on TPP-3 - Copy.pptx124
New Presentation on TPP-3 - Copy.pptx124New Presentation on TPP-3 - Copy.pptx124
New Presentation on TPP-3 - Copy.pptx124
 
Power Systems-I.pdf
Power Systems-I.pdfPower Systems-I.pdf
Power Systems-I.pdf
 
thermal power plant
thermal power plant thermal power plant
thermal power plant
 
Thermal Power Plant - Full Detail About Plant and Parts (Also Contain Animate...
Thermal Power Plant - Full Detail About Plant and Parts (Also Contain Animate...Thermal Power Plant - Full Detail About Plant and Parts (Also Contain Animate...
Thermal Power Plant - Full Detail About Plant and Parts (Also Contain Animate...
 

Recently uploaded

Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
MohammadAliNayeem
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdfGeometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
Geometric constructions Engineering Drawing.pdf
 
BURGER ORDERING SYSYTEM PROJECT REPORT..pdf
BURGER ORDERING SYSYTEM PROJECT REPORT..pdfBURGER ORDERING SYSYTEM PROJECT REPORT..pdf
BURGER ORDERING SYSYTEM PROJECT REPORT..pdf
 
The battle for RAG, explore the pros and cons of using KnowledgeGraphs and Ve...
The battle for RAG, explore the pros and cons of using KnowledgeGraphs and Ve...The battle for RAG, explore the pros and cons of using KnowledgeGraphs and Ve...
The battle for RAG, explore the pros and cons of using KnowledgeGraphs and Ve...
 
EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FINAL presentation
EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FINAL presentationEMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FINAL presentation
EMPLOYEE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FINAL presentation
 
Linux Systems Programming: Semaphores, Shared Memory, and Message Queues
Linux Systems Programming: Semaphores, Shared Memory, and Message QueuesLinux Systems Programming: Semaphores, Shared Memory, and Message Queues
Linux Systems Programming: Semaphores, Shared Memory, and Message Queues
 
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdfDiploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
Diploma Engineering Drawing Qp-2024 Ece .pdf
 
"United Nations Park" Site Visit Report.
"United Nations Park" Site  Visit Report."United Nations Park" Site  Visit Report.
"United Nations Park" Site Visit Report.
 
E-Commerce Shopping using MERN Stack where different modules are present
E-Commerce Shopping using MERN Stack where different modules are presentE-Commerce Shopping using MERN Stack where different modules are present
E-Commerce Shopping using MERN Stack where different modules are present
 
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and History of AI
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and History of AIIntroduction to Artificial Intelligence and History of AI
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and History of AI
 
Seismic Hazard Assessment Software in Python by Prof. Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Seismic Hazard Assessment Software in Python by Prof. Dr. Costas SachpazisSeismic Hazard Assessment Software in Python by Prof. Dr. Costas Sachpazis
Seismic Hazard Assessment Software in Python by Prof. Dr. Costas Sachpazis
 
Theory for How to calculation capacitor bank
Theory for How to calculation capacitor bankTheory for How to calculation capacitor bank
Theory for How to calculation capacitor bank
 
BRAKING SYSTEM IN INDIAN RAILWAY AutoCAD DRAWING
BRAKING SYSTEM IN INDIAN RAILWAY AutoCAD DRAWINGBRAKING SYSTEM IN INDIAN RAILWAY AutoCAD DRAWING
BRAKING SYSTEM IN INDIAN RAILWAY AutoCAD DRAWING
 
Electrical shop management system project report.pdf
Electrical shop management system project report.pdfElectrical shop management system project report.pdf
Electrical shop management system project report.pdf
 
Online book store management system project.pdf
Online book store management system project.pdfOnline book store management system project.pdf
Online book store management system project.pdf
 
Software Engineering - Modelling Concepts + Class Modelling + Building the An...
Software Engineering - Modelling Concepts + Class Modelling + Building the An...Software Engineering - Modelling Concepts + Class Modelling + Building the An...
Software Engineering - Modelling Concepts + Class Modelling + Building the An...
 
Lab Manual Arduino UNO Microcontrollar.docx
Lab Manual Arduino UNO Microcontrollar.docxLab Manual Arduino UNO Microcontrollar.docx
Lab Manual Arduino UNO Microcontrollar.docx
 
Intelligent Agents, A discovery on How A Rational Agent Acts
Intelligent Agents, A discovery on How A Rational Agent ActsIntelligent Agents, A discovery on How A Rational Agent Acts
Intelligent Agents, A discovery on How A Rational Agent Acts
 
5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representin...
5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representin...5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representin...
5G and 6G refer to generations of mobile network technology, each representin...
 
ChatGPT Prompt Engineering for project managers.pdf
ChatGPT Prompt Engineering for project managers.pdfChatGPT Prompt Engineering for project managers.pdf
ChatGPT Prompt Engineering for project managers.pdf
 
Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
Complex plane, Modulus, Argument, Graphical representation of a complex numbe...
 

complete construction, environmental and economics information of biomass combined cycle power plant..pdf

  • 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Lahore (New Campus) CEP Thermodynamics-2 Submitted by: Asad Nawaz Registration No: 2022-ME-352 Contact number: 0345-3954837 G-mail account: 2022me352@student.uet.edu.pk , asadnawaz580gb@gmail.com Submitting Date: 08 - 03 - 2024 Submitted to: Dr. Zahid Anwar
  • 2. Following tasks are solved in this CEP of thermodynamics. Task 1: Project Overview and Proposal 1.1. Provide an overview of the combined cycle power plant using biomass, explaining the integration of gas and steam turbines. 1.2. Propose a suitable location within the province of Punjab, considering environmental factors, biomass availability, and proximity to demand centres. Task 2: Biomass Selection and Consumption Estimation 2.1. Discuss the types of biomasses suitable for power generation in Punjab. 2.2. Calculate the estimated biomass consumption based on the power plant's capacity and efficiency. Task 3: Environmental Impact Assessment 3.1. Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion and compare them with local environmental legislation. 3.2. Analyze the environmental impact of the biomass-based combined cycle power plant and propose mitigation measures. Task 4: Economic Analysis 4.1. Calculate the initial capital costs for setting up the biomass-based power plant. 4.2. Estimate operational and maintenance costs associated with biomass fuel. 4.3. Conduct a financial analysis, including payback period, return on investment, and net present value. Task 5: Comparison with Alternative Energy Sources 5.1. Investigate alternative energy sources within Punjab, such as solar, wind, and hydropower. 5.2. Compare the environmental and economic aspects of the biomass-based combined cycle power plant with alternative energy sources.
  • 3. Task 1: Project Overview and Proposal 1.1. Provide an overview of the combined cycle power plant using biomass, explaining the integration of gas and steam turbines. Biomass Combined Cycle Power: A biomass combined cycle power plant is a type of power generation facility that utilizes biomass as its primary fuel source to produce electricity. The term "combined cycle" refers to the utilization of two different thermodynamic cycles to generate power efficiently. Figure 1: combined cycle power plant A biomass combined cycle power plant makes electricity in two main steps: 1. Biomass Conversion: • First, biomass materials like wood chips, pellets, or energy crops are burned in a special furnace. • When burned, these materials produce hot gases. • Sometimes, these hot gases are turned into a cleaner-burning gas called syngas through a process called gasification. 2. Dual Power Generation: • The hot gases or syngas spin a turbine, which is like a really big windmill, to make electricity (this is called the gas turbine cycle). • Even after spinning the turbine, the hot gases still have useful heat left. • This leftover heat is used to make steam in a boiler, which is called a heat recovery steam generator. • The steam made in the boiler is high-pressure and spins another turbine, called a steam turbine, to make even more electricity (this is the steam turbine cycle). By doing these two steps together, the power plant can get more energy out of the fuel it uses, making it more efficient than traditional methods.
  • 4. integration of gas and steam turbines: A biomass combined cycle power plant has gas turbine power plant and steam turbine power plant working cycle to increase the efficiency of system. integration of gas turbine: The gas turbine power plant operates on the Brayton cycle, which is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a constant pressure heat engine. Here's an explanation of the Brayton cycle as it applies to a gas turbine power plant: Figure 2: Brayton cycle 1. Compression (Adiabatic Process): • Air is drawn into the compressor of the gas turbine power plant. • The compressor increases the pressure of the incoming air by reducing its volume. • This compression process is typically adiabatic, meaning there is no heat exchange with the surroundings, and it occurs rapidly. 2. Combustion (Constant Pressure Process): • The compressed air is then directed into the combustion chamber where it mixes with fuel (typically natural gas, diesel, or aviation fuel). • The mixture is ignited, and combustion occurs, producing high-temperature, high-pressure gases. • The combustion process happens at constant pressure because the combustion chamber is designed to maintain a relatively constant pressure while allowing the gases to expand as they heat up. 3. Expansion (Adiabatic Process): • The hot gases generated in the combustion chamber expand through the gas turbine.
  • 5. • As the gases flow through the turbine blades, they drive the turbine rotor, converting the thermal energy of the gases into mechanical energy. • This expansion process is adiabatic, meaning there is no heat exchange with the surroundings, and it also occurs rapidly. 4. Exhaust (Constant Pressure Process): • After passing through the gas turbine, the exhaust gases exit the turbine at a lower pressure and temperature. • The exhaust gases are expelled through the exhaust system into the atmosphere. • The pressure in the exhaust system is maintained relatively constant, allowing for efficient expulsion of the gases. The Brayton cycle in a gas turbine power plant is characterized by two adiabatic processes (compression and expansion) and two constant pressure processes (combustion and exhaust). It is a thermodynamically efficient cycle for converting the chemical energy of the fuel into mechanical energy and ultimately into electrical energy. integration of steam turbine: A steam turbine power plant operates on the Rankine cycle, which is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of steam-based power generation systems. Here's an explanation of the Rankine cycle as it applies to a steam turbine power plant, along with its main components and their functions: Figure 3: Rankine cycle 1. Boiler: • The boiler is a crucial component where water is heated to generate steam. • Heat is typically supplied to the boiler through the combustion of fossil fuels (such as coal, natural gas, or oil), nuclear reactions, or other heat sources. • The high-temperature steam generated in the boiler is often superheated to increase its energy content. 2. Steam Turbine:
  • 6. • The high-pressure steam produced in the boiler is directed into the steam turbine. • The steam expands through the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. • The rotational energy of the turbine shaft is used to drive an electric generator, converting the mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy. 3. Condenser: • After passing through the turbine, the low-pressure steam exits into the condenser. • In the condenser, the steam is condensed back into water by transferring its heat to a cooling medium (such as water from a cooling tower or a nearby river). • The condensation process reduces the pressure of the steam, allowing it to be pumped back into the boiler for reheating. 4. Feedwater Pump: • The feedwater pump is responsible for pumping water from the condenser into the boiler. • It increases the pressure of the water to ensure proper operation of the boiler and steam cycle. 5. Cooling System: • The cooling system is used to remove waste heat from the condenser and maintain its efficiency. • Depending on the design of the power plant, cooling may be achieved through the use of cooling towers, surface water bodies, or other cooling mediums. 6. Generator: • The generator is coupled to the steam turbine shaft and converts the rotational mechanical energy produced by the turbine into electrical energy. • The electricity generated by the generator is then transmitted to the electrical grid for distribution to consumers. Steam turbine power plants are widely used for large-scale electricity generation due to their efficiency.
  • 7. 1.2. Propose a suitable location within the province of Punjab, considering environmental factors, biomass availability, and proximity to demand centers. environmental factors: • optimum temperature of okara is 10-20C in winter and is 20-35C in summer which is suitable operating temperature of biomass combined cycle power plant. • There are many un-cultivated places in okara to build biomass combined cycle power plant with low price. • Water is available in large amount which can be used for cooling systems. • Less air pollution should be created due large number of trees. • The waste products can be easily managed in the un-cultivated areas of okara. • Weather conditions like humidity, pressures and water vapours are available in the normal range to avoid environmental corrosion power plant. biomass availability: Rice straw: rice straw per acre = 1tone since cultivated in Okara of rice is 383000acre [1]. Total amount of rice straw in Okara = 383000x1 tones Total amount of rice straw in kg = 383000x25x40 = 383𝑋106 kg Maize straw: maize straw per acre = 2tone since cultivated in Okara of rice is 104600acre [2]. Total amount of rice straw in Okara = 104600x2tones Total amount of rice straw in kg = 104600x25x40x2 = 209.2𝑥106 kg Total amount of Rice straw and Maize straw = 383𝑥106 kg + 209.2𝑥106 kg [Note: we can use a single straw for production of 500MW electricity but to avoid the huge store and transfer of waste products from away areas, both straws are used in combined cycle power plant.] proximity to demand centers: As we know that okara is an agricultural district of Punjab. It required a large amount of water for the production agricultural products. To get this amount of water a huge amount of oil is burned which is very expensive. 1st demand centre: Agriculture field 2nd demand centre: domestic purpose
  • 8. [note: both demand centres are find by visiting different places of okara.] Considering all the above factors 40-D of Okara is best place for biomass combined cycle power plant.
  • 9. Task 2: Biomass Selection and Consumption Estimation 2.1. Discuss the types of biomass suitable for power generation in Punjab. In the province of Punjab there are many biomasses which can be used as a fuel in the combined cycle power plant. But to avoid the huge price of biomasses only those biomasses are used for these purposes which are waste products of many agriculture things. • Rice Straw • Corn Cobs • Cotton Stalk • Wheat Straw • Bajra Stalk • Sugarcane bagasse • Maize stalks • Soybean stalks • Oat straw • Apple Pruning • Mango Prunings • Fallen Leaves • Weed Residues • Dry form of banana trees • Dry form of steams of vegetables Now I discus the waste products of agricultural things that are present in the district Okara according to servy of Okara 2021-2020 where the combined cycle power plant has been set. • Rice Straw • Maize(Corn) straw • Wheat Straw • Stems of vegetables(potatoes) • Fallen Leaves • Other things in mild quantity are Bajra Stalk, Cotton Stalk and Sugarcane bagasse These are waste products which are used in the combined cycle power plant. To get specific amount of electricity, a huge amount of these products is required in the power plant. If a single waste product can be used in the power plant, it is difficult to collect the required amount of waste products because it depends on season. To avoid such difficulties two or more waste products should use. So, our biomass combined cycle power plant will use Rice Straw and Maize (Corn) straw due to easy and negligible prices. We have to afford the price only to carry from different places of Okara to the power plant.
  • 10. 2.2. Calculate the estimated biomass consumption based on the power plant's capacity and efficiency. power plant's capacity: according to given information, we have to calculate amount of biomass product which can generate the electric power of 500MW. power plant's efficiency : The efficiency of fuel combined cycle power plant is greater than 50%. But the efficiency of biomass combined cycle power plant is lower than the fuel combined cycle power plant since fuel has higher thermal efficiency than waste products. Its means that a large amount of biomass is required for to get the same power production. Bhikki power plant have a net combined-cycle efficiency of more than 64%. Taking reference Bhikki, efficiency of power plant is 64%. Mass of rice straw (for six month) Efficiency of the combined cycle power plant = 64% [3] Energy content of the dry rice straw =14 MJ/kg [4] we convert the power output from MW to Joules: 500𝑀𝑊 = 500 × 106 𝑊 = 500 × 106 𝐽/𝑠 Second in six months = 6x24x60x60=561600 sec Now power into six months: 500 × 106 × 561600 = 2.8 × 1014 𝐽/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ The mass of rice straw needed into six months: 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 2.8 × 1014 14 × 106 = 20 × 106 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 Since, 64% mass of rice straw is convert into energy. So, = 20 × 106 0.64 = 31.25 × 106 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 Amount of biomass which is required into six month of rice straw.
  • 11. Mass of maize straw (for six month) Efficiency of the combined cycle power plant = 64% Energy content of the dry maize straw =18.6 MJ/kg (google) we convert the power output from MW to Joules: 500𝑀𝑊 = 500 × 106 𝑊 = 500 × 106 𝐽/𝑠 Second in six months = 6x24x60x60=561600 sec Now power into six months: 500 × 106 × 561600 = 2.8 × 1014 𝐽/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ The mass of rice straw needed into six months: 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 2.8 × 1014 18.6 × 106 = 1.51 × 108 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 Since, 64% mass of rice straw is convert into energy. So, = 1.51 × 108 0.64 = 23.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 Amount of biomass which is required into six months of maize straw. Total amount of waste product: total amount of biomass required per year = mass of maize straw + mass of rice straw = 20 × 106 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 + 23.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔/𝑠𝑖𝑥𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠 = 43.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔/year
  • 12. Task 3: Environmental Impact Assessment 3.1. Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion and compare them with local environmental legislation. Estimate pollutant emissions from biomass combustion: A rice and corn straw contains following same components 1. Carbon (C): Present in cellulose(𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5), hemicellulose(𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4), and lignin(𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3). 2. Hydrogen (H): Present in cellulose, hemicellulose, and organic matter. 3. Oxygen (O): Present in cellulose, hemicellulose, and water. 4. Nitrogen (N): Present in proteins and organic matter. 5. Sulfur (S): Present in trace amounts in proteins and organic matter. 6. Phosphorus (P): Present in trace amounts in proteins and organic matter. 7. Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and other minerals: Present in trace amounts in ash. These are all present in the rice and corn straw but the major part of straw is formed carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Consider the complete reaction, 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 𝑎(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 𝑥𝐶𝑂2 + 𝑦𝐻2𝑂 + 𝑧𝑁2 C-balance: X=6+5+9 X=20 moles H-balance: Y=5+4+5 Y=14 moles O-balance: 2a+3+4+5=20(2) +14(1) 2a+12=40+14 2a=40+14-12 2a=42
  • 13. a=42/2 a=21 N-balance: a(2) =z(2) z=21 now, the balance equation is 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 21(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 20𝐶𝑂2 + 14𝐻2𝑂 + 21𝑁2 This equation shows that when one mole of rice or corn burn then 20 moles of carbon dioxide and 21 moles of nitrogen are produced. Mass of CO2 and N2 produced per year from biomass-based combined cycle power plant: Addition of CO2: As we know that 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 + 21(𝑂2 + 𝑁2) → 20𝐶𝑂2 + 14𝐻2𝑂 + 21𝑁2 1 mole of straw = 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 + 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 + 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 Now molar mass of the 1 mole straw, Molar mass 𝐶6𝐻10𝑂5 = 162.16𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 Molar mass 𝐶5𝐻8𝑂4 = 132.13𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 Molar mass 𝐶9𝐻10𝑂3 = 166.19𝑔/𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 Molar mass of 1 mole straw = 460.48 g/mole N=m/M m=NM m=1x460.48 m=460.48 g so, 460.48g straw = 1 mole of straw 1kg straw = 1mole/o.46048 = 2.17 moles 43.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔 of straw = 9.45x107 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑤 So, total number of moles of CO2 generated when 43.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔 of straw is burned. Number of moles of CO2= 20 x 9.45x107 moles = 1.89x109 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠
  • 14. Now, mass of CO2 adds per year in the environment is N=m/M m=NM m= 1.89x109 𝑋48 𝑚 = 9.1x1010 𝑘𝑔/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 Addition of N2: total number of moles of N2 generated when 43.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔 of straw is burned. Number of moles of N2= 21 x 43.52x106 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 = 9.1x108 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 Now, mass of N2 adds per year in the environment is N=m/M m=NM m= 9.1x108 𝑋28 𝑚 = 2.548x1010 𝑘𝑔/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 Instead of this there are many pollutants are produced during this combustion like nitrogen gas (N2), sulfur oxides (SOx), phosphorus oxides (POx) , potassium oxide (𝐾2𝑂), calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO), and other substances. But there is a problem to find their quantities because they are present in the tracer amount. compare with local environmental legislation: Mass Comparison: The mass of CO₂ is 9.1 × 10¹⁰ grams, N₂ is 2.548 × 10¹⁰ grams. Environmental Legislation in Pakistan: The Pakistan EPA allowed the 2.5PM (particles matter) in the environments. If this amount increases then it can be dangerous for the environments.
  • 15. 3.2. Analyze the environmental impact of the biomass-based combined cycle power plant and propose mitigation measures. 1. Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) Emissions: o Emission Process: ▪ When rice straw is burned, it undergoes combustion, releasing CO₂ into the atmosphere. ▪ The carbon stored in the straw combines with oxygen during burning, resulting in the production of CO₂. o Environmental Impact: ▪ Global Warming: CO₂ is a major greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. According to world estimate the temperature rise is one trillionth of a degree Celsius when 1kg CO2 adds in environments. ▪ Climate Change: Increased CO₂ levels contribute to changes in climate patterns, rising temperatures, and altered weather conditions. ▪ Ocean Acidification: Excess CO₂ is absorbed by oceans, leading to acidification and affecting marine ecosystems. ▪ Carbon Cycle: While CO₂ emissions from straw burning are significant, they are considered part of the natural carbon cycle (photosynthesis and respiration). o Mitigation Strategies: ▪ Sustainable Biomass Sourcing: Promoting sustainable forestry practices and agricultural residue management can help maintain or increase carbon stocks in biomass feedstocks, thereby ensuring that the CO2 emitted during combustion is offset by the carbon sequestered during biomass growth. ▪ Efficient Combustion Technologies: Adopting advanced combustion technologies such as fluidized bed combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis can improve the efficiency of biomass combustion, reducing CO2 emissions per unit of energy produced. ▪ Combined Heat and Power (CHP): Implementing combined heat and power systems allows for the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heat, improving overall energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions compared to separate heat and power generation. ▪ Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): CCS technologies capture CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and store them underground or utilize them for enhanced oil recovery, preventing CO2 from entering the atmosphere. ▪ Biochar Production: Biomass pyrolysis can produce biochar, a stable form of carbon that can be used as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility, thereby offsetting CO2 emissions. 2. Nitrogen Gas (N₂) Emissions: o Emission Process: ▪ During straw burning, some nitrogen gas (N₂) is also released. ▪ N₂ itself is not a greenhouse gas, but its compounds (such as nitrous oxide, N₂O) contribute to global warming. o Environmental Impact:
  • 16. ▪ Nitrous Oxide (N₂O): N₂O is a potent greenhouse gas with a much higher warming potential than CO₂. ▪ Water Pollution: Excessive nitrogen emissions can lead to water pollution and affect aquatic ecosystems. ▪ Air Quality: Straw burning also emits other gaseous pollutants (SO₂, NOx, HCl, dioxins, and furans). o Mitigation Strategies: ▪ Optimized Combustion Conditions: Adjusting combustion parameters such as air-to- fuel ratio, temperature, and residence time can optimize combustion efficiency and minimize N2 formation, reducing N2 emissions. ▪ Low-Nitrogen Biomass Feedstocks: Selecting biomass feedstocks with low nitrogen content can reduce the potential for N2 emissions during combustion. Proper biomass management practices, such as composting and anaerobic digestion, can also minimize nitrogen losses. ▪ Flue Gas Treatment: Implementing flue gas treatment technologies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) can remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from flue gases before they are emitted, reducing N2 emissions. ▪ Emission Control Systems: Installing particulate matter filters and electrostatic precipitators in biomass combustion systems can capture nitrogen-containing particulates and prevent their release into the atmosphere. ▪ Combustion Optimization: Continuous monitoring and optimization of combustion processes can help minimize excess air and reduce nitrogen oxidation, leading to lower N2 emissions. ▪ Implementing these mitigation measures can help reduce the environmental impact of CO2 and N2 emissions from biomass energy production while improving overall efficiency and sustainability. In summary, while burning rice straw contributes to CO₂ and N₂ emissions, sustainable utilization methods and soil carbon sequestration play crucial roles in mitigating their effects.
  • 17. Task 4: Economic Analysis 4.1. Calculate the initial capital costs for setting up the biomass-based power plant. The initial capital cost for setting up the biomass combined cycle power plant is depending upon many factors such location, variety of mechanical instruments and design etc. The size biomass combined cycle power plant is at least 30 acre [5] and extra place for the storage of biomass should be 30 acres to store a huge quantity of biomass fuels. Now, I discus the price components of combined cycle power plant which are received from different sources [6]. Name Minimum price Maximum price Average price Place for power plant 5.3$ million 10.6$ million 7.95$ million Generator of steam 40$ million 60$ million 50$ million steam turbine boiler system 300$ million 600$ million 450$ million Pump 2$ million 5$ million 3.5$ million Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) 80$ million 120$ million 100$ million Gas turbine system 400$ million 800$ million 600$ million Place of waste storge 5.3$ million 10.6$ million 7.95$ million Hot water supply system 0.007$ million Civil and architectural works 0.028$ million Transportation 0.0085$ million Consulting service 0.0045$ million Total 1219.445$ million To set up a new combined cycle power plant, the average value 1219.445$ million are required.
  • 18. 4.2. Estimate operational and maintenance costs associated with biomass fuel. Now, we discuss the operational and maintenance cost of biomass combined cycle power plant: Biomass cost: Actually, some waste products have few prices but many waste products are presents free of cost. The farmer burned these waste products to clean up their fields. But our biomass combined cycle power plant uses only rice straw and corn straw which are in district Okara in large amount and there is no price of these straws. [Note: the knowledge of free of cost was received by visiting different areas in Okara] Biomass transportation cost: Biomass transportation has two costs, one is collecting cost of waste products by labours and other is reaching cost to waste product in the power plant. By Labour transportation cost: To collect the required straw from different fields the price, Per acre collection price of straw = 2000 Rupees [by visiting] The 362666.67 acre are required to collect 43.52 × 106 𝑘𝑔 of straw. Total collection price of waste products = 362666.67x2000 = 7.3𝑋108 𝑟𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑠 = 2.57$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 By Vehicle’s transportation cost: As we know that the labour transportation cost is equal to the vehicle’s transportation cost. So, Total transportation cost by vehicles = 2.57$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 Net transportation cost = 5.14$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 Labour cost: Now, we discuss the labour cost to run the biomass combined cycle power plant [7]. Vacancy name Salaries range Average salary Person range Average range Total salaries Of required persons Plant Operators $40000-$80000 $60000 18-20 19 $1140000 Maintenance Technicians $30000-$60000 $45000 18-20 19 $855000
  • 19. Engineers $60000-$120000 $90000 22-30 26 $2340000 Administrative Staff $30000-$60000 $45000 18-20 19 $855000 Management and Supervision $80000-$200000 $140000 16-22 19 $2660000 total $7850000 =7.85$ million Net operational and maintenance cost per year = 7.85$ million + 5.14$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 12.99$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛
  • 20. 4.3. Conduct a financial analysis, including payback period, return on investment, and net present value. Electric power produced = 500MW = 500000 KW Hours in eleven working months = 11 x 30 x 24 = 7200 hour [Note: 1month power is under maintenance] Power produced in year = 500000 x 7200 = 3.6𝑋109 𝐾𝑊/ℎ = 3.6𝑋109 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 Price of single unit of electricity in Pakistan = 22 rupees Price of 3.6𝑋109 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 in Pakistan = 3.6 𝑋 109 𝑋 22 = 7.92𝑋1010 𝑟𝑢𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑠 = $278.9 𝑋 106 Earn money from biomass combined power plant in one year = 278.9$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 Total initial setting cost of biomass combined cycle power plant = 1219.445$ million Total operational and maintenance cost in one year = 12.99$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 Now, Earn money in five years = 5𝑋 278.9$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 1394.5$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 Total operational and maintenance cost in 5 year = 5 X 12.99 = 64.95$ million Profit in five years = 1394.5$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 − 64.95$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 1329.55$ 𝑚𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑖𝑜𝑛 So, This calculation shows that our investment will return after 5 years.
  • 21. Task 5: Comparison with Alternative Energy Sources 5.1. Investigate alternative energy sources within Punjab, such as solar, wind, and hydropower. Solar energy Working principle: Solar energy is the process of capturing sunlight and converting it into electricity or heat. Solar panels absorb sunlight on a semiconductor material, creating electron and hole pairs. Other uses include concentrating solar energy systems for turbines and thermal mass for internal heating. Solar energy offers a clean, renewable alternative to finite fossil fuels. Figure 4: working cycle of solar energy power plant The average efficiency of a solar power plant is between 18% and 30%. Components: Now, we discuss the major components of solar power plant. Photovoltaic panel: Photovoltaic panels are flat boxes with cells made of silicon, which generate electricity when sunlight hits them. The electrons move in one direction, generating electricity. The cells are connected to create a larger module or panel, amplifying the amount of electricity produced. The solar-generated electricity is initially DC, but most homes and appliances require AC. An inverter converts DC into AC for easy use. PV panels convert sunlight into usable electricity without pollution or depletion of non-renewable resources. Inverter: An Inverter is essential in a solar energy system as it converts Direct Current (DC) electricity from solar panels into AC power, compatible with standard household and business appliances. This helps bridge the gap between solar panels and electronics, making solar electricity accessible and beneficial for users. Inverters come in various shapes and sizes, ranging from rooftop-sized to utility-scale models, ensuring efficient device operation and cost savings. Mounting structure:
  • 22. A mounting system helps hold solar panels in place so they work well in turning sunlight into electricity. It comes in different styles like those for roofs, the ground, tall poles, or special setups. This keeps the panels safe and makes sure we get the most out of the sun's energy. Solar batteries: Solar batteries are devices that store energy from sunlight for later use, usually when the sun is not shining or at night. They help make solar power more reliable and usable by providing a way to store excess electricity generated during daylight hours and release it when needed. Which means your home or business won't be dependent on utility companies for electricity. Instead, it will generate its own clean, renewable energy from the sun. Charger controller: A charge controller is an electronic device in off-grid solar energy systems that manages power from solar panels and batteries to prevent overcharging and deep discharging. It limits the rate of charge and prevents reverse current flow, ensuring electricity flows safely and efficiently between the system. This helps maintain the system's overall health and longevity by preventing overcharging and deep discharging, and ensuring the system's longevity. Wind energy Working principle: Wind energy is using the wind's force to generate electricity. Turbines (machines with rotating blades) convert kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy, which then drives an electrical generator to produce clean, renewable power. The amount of electricity produced depends on factors like turbine size, blade design, and wind speed. By harnessing this natural resource, we can create a sustainable source of energy for homes, businesses, and communities. Figure 5: components of wind energy power plant The average efficiency of a wind energy power plant is between 20% and 40%. Components:
  • 23. Now, we discuss the major components of wind energy power plant. Wind turbine: A wind turbine converts wind energy into mechanical power for electricity generation. It consists of blades, rotor, and tower. Wind blows, blades turn rotor, spinning generator. Electricity is sent to grid for distribution. Rotor blades: Rotor blades in wind turbines are large air foils that spin around a central axis, converting wind's kinetic energy into rotational motion. They drive the generator and produce electricity. Modern turbines use two or three lightweight blades, typically made from fiberglass or carbon fibre. Hub: The hub on a wind turbine connects rotor blades to the shaft, facilitating smooth rotation and torque transfer. It contains bearings, sensors, and control systems for optimal performance. The hub transmits wind energy to the generator, generating electric. Shaft: The shaft on a wind turbine is a cylindrical component that transfers rotational motion from rotor blades to the generator. Made of durable materials like steel, it connects the rotor and gearbox, generating electrical energy from the spinning of the shaft. Gearbox: The gearbox in a wind turbine increases the rotational motion of the rotor blades to match the generator's input requirements. Typically, rotor blades rotate slowly, but generators require higher speeds. The gearbox ensures efficient energy conversion by utilizing gears and other mechanical components. Tower: A wind turbine tower is a tall vertical pole supporting the nacelle, containing key components like blades, rotor, gearbox, generator, and brakes, boosting efficiency and power output by lifting them above the ground. Control system: A control system, a combination of hardware and software, regulates machine actions, maintains consistency, optimizes performance, and ensures safety by precise manipulation of variables.
  • 24. Hydropower Working principle: Hydropower is a renewable energy source that uses water to generate electricity. It involves a water source, turbine, and generator, which converts the water's energy into electricity. Hydropower is cost-effective, reliable, and clean, making it a valuable resource for integrating variable renewable energy sources like wind and solar. Figure 6: working cycle of hydropower plant The efficiency of hydropower plant is about 90% which is higher than any other source like wind power plant, solar energy power plant and coal energy power plant. Components: Now, we discuss the major components of hydropower plant Water diversion: Water diversion is the redirection of water flow to prevent water-related damage, using methods like barriers, ditches, or pumps. It protects structures, land, and assets from water accumulation. It's used in residential, commercial, and industrial settings. In hydropower systems, it directs water from a source to a turbine for electricity generation. Penstock: A penstock is a crucial pipeline in a hydropower system, transporting water from a source to a turbine, which generates electricity. Materials like steel or concrete can be used, and their size and length vary. Turbine and generator: Hydropower systems utilize turbines to convert water's kinetic energy into mechanical energy, which is then used to power a generator. Wind energy systems use wind to turn blades, while
  • 25. solar power systems convert DC electricity into AC electricity. The generator is a crucial component in these systems, as most household appliances require AC electricity. Tailrace: A tailrace is a channel or canal in a hydropower system that transports water from a turbine after generating electricity. It ensures efficient and safe water removal, reduces system damage, and maintains water flow and quality, protecting aquatic ecosystems and the environment. Transmission wires: Transmission wires, made of aluminium or copper, transmit high-voltage electricity from the generating station to the distribution system. They reduce energy loss and ensure efficient transmission over long distances. The wires are connected to the generator, which produces electricity from water's mechanical energy.
  • 26. 5.2. Compare the environmental and economic aspects of the biomass-based combined cycle power plant with alternative energy sources. Environmental aspects: Solar energy power plant: Solar energy is considered a clean energy source because it doesn't produce greenhouse gases, contribute to air or water pollution, or emit toxic gases. However, solar energy can have some environmental impacts, including: 1. Land Use: Solar energy needs a lot of land, which can affect the plants and animals living there. 2. Habitat Loss: Cutting down trees and plants to set up solar panels can disturb the balance of nature in that area. 3. Ecosystem Disruption: Building roads and power lines for solar energy can break up habitats, disturb animals, and bring in new plants and animals that don't belong there. 4. Toxic Materials: Making solar panels involves using some chemicals that can harm the environment if not handled properly. Wind energy power plant: It is also clean source of energy because it does not produce any pollutants during producing electricity. 1. Visual impact: Wind turbines are large machines that can visually affect the landscape. 2. Noise: Wind turbine blades make noise as they turn in the wind. 3. Bird and bat deaths: Birds and bats can be injured or killed if they are hit by turbine blades. 4. Habitat fragmentation: Rows of turbines and connecting roads can fragment habitats. 5. Specialized vegetation: Specialized, endemic ridge-top vegetation may be disproportionately affected. 6. Downwind sand dunes: Downwind sand dunes might be altered. 7. Displacement: Birds and bats may be displaced from their areas, causing changes in migration routes and loss of quality habitat. 8. Marine life: The physical presence of offshore wind farms may alter the behavior of marine mammals, fish, and seabirds by reasons of either attraction or avoidance. 9. Underwater noise: Underwater noise may be associated with the installation process of monopile turbines.
  • 27. Hydropower energy power plant: There is no any pollutant are produced during the production of electricity. So, it is a clean way to produce the electricity. It has some following effects on environments are, 1. Fish migration: Dams can obstruct fish migration. 2. Water temperatures: Dams and reservoirs can change natural water temperatures. 3. Fish kills: Hydropower turbines can kill and injure fish. 4. Reservoirs: Reservoirs can change natural water temperatures. 5. Wildlife impacts: Hydroelectric facilities can have a major impact on aquatic ecosystems. 6. Global warming emissions: Global warming emissions are produced during the installation and dismantling of hydroelectric power plants. 7. Landscape changes: Reservoirs drastically change the landscape and rivers they are built on. 8. River flow reduction: Dams and reservoirs can reduce river flows. 9. Water quality degradation: Dams and reservoirs can degrade water quality. 10. Sediment build up: Dams and reservoirs can cause sediment to build up. Environmental Impact Comparison: By the comparison, it is shows that there are no pollutants are created during the production of electricity. These sources only add pollution only their manufacturing. Other environmental impacts are very small by these sources. Economic aspects: Solar energy power plant: A standard solar panel is about 17–18 square feet To produce 1MW power the number of plates = 3500-4000 panels To produce 500MW power the number of plates = 1750000-2000000 panels The price of standard solar panel plate = $240 [8] Now, The price of 2000000 plates = $240 X 2000000 = 480$ million 4050 plates are present in one acre. So, total 1250 acre are required for 2 million plates.
  • 28. Price of one acre = 5000000 rupees Price of 1250 acre = 1250 X 5000000 = 6250000000 rupees = 22.01$ million So, Net price of solar energy power plant = 480$ million + 22.01$ million = 502.01$ million Wind energy power plant: 1 hydropower turbine can produce = 10MW So, the total number of hydropower turbines are required to produce 500MW are 50 turbines. Price of single turbine = 8$ million [9] Price 250 turbines = 50 x 8$ million = 200$ million Two acres spacing is required between each wind to avoid disturbance. Total required acres = 2 x 250 = 500 acres Price of 500 acres = 500 x 5000000 = 250000000 = 0.8802$ million Net price of solar energy power plant = 1500$ million + 0.8802$ million = 1500.88$ million Hydropower plant: 1 turbine can produce = 10MW So, the total number of turbines are required to produce 500MW are 50 turbines. Price of single turbine = 8$ million [10] Price 250 turbines = 50 x 8$ million = 200$ million In this case, only major cost is infrastructural and land cost, which is round about 1$ billion. Net price of hydropower plant = 200$ million + 1000$ million = 1200$ million
  • 29. Economic Comparison: Now, compare the setting values of all power plants Solar energy power plant = 502.01$ million Hydropower plant = 1200$ million Biomass combined cycle power plant = 1219.445$ million Wind energy power plant = 1500.88$ million This comparison shows that to get 500MW power as a output, the easiest and low price power plant is solar energy power plant but it uses more land than other power plants. Recommendations: Reminding all the above calculation, the Punjab province has enough amount of waste product of many types which are available in all season. By using this amount of waste product, the shortage of electric power in Punjab can be overcome.
  • 30. References: [1]. Servy of okara 2020-2021 [2]. Servy of okara 2020-2021 [3]. Bhikki power plant [4] google [5] Bhikki [6] Alibaba, hasab website, google [7] Alibaba, hasab website, google, chatgbt [8] Alibaba [9] Alibaba [10] Alibaba