Unit i theories of motivation


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theories of motivation, Organisation Behaviour

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  • Unit i theories of motivation

    1. 1. Motivation at Work
    2. 2. Definition of Motivation <ul><li>Motivation - the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior </li></ul>
    3. 3. 3 Groups of Motivational Theories <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Expectancy theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Two-factor theory </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Early Philosophers of Motivational Theories <ul><li>Max Weber—work contributes to salvation; Protestant work ethic </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud—delve into the unconscious mind to better understand a person’s motives and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith— “ enlightened” self-interest; that which is in the best interest and benefit to the individual and to other people </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Taylor—founder of scientific management; emphasized cooperation between management and labor to enlarge company profits </li></ul>
    5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety & Security Love (Social) Esteem SA Lowest to highest order
    6. 6. Motivational Theories X & Y Physiological Safety & Security Love (Social) Esteem SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by higher order needs Theory X - a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals motivated by lower order needs
    7. 7. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory X <ul><li>Naturally indolent </li></ul><ul><li>Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led </li></ul><ul><li>Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Gullible, not bright, ready dupes </li></ul>
    8. 8. McGregor’s Assumptions About People Based on Theory Y <ul><li>Experiences in organizations result in passive and resistant behaviors; they are not inherent </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, development potential, capacity for assuming responsibility, readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are present in people </li></ul><ul><li>Management’s task—arrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goals </li></ul>
    9. 9. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence Relatedness Growth Physiological Safety & Security Love (Social) Esteem SA
    10. 10. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement <ul><li>Need for Achievement - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties </li></ul>
    11. 11. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Power <ul><li>Need for Power - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life </li></ul>
    12. 12. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Affiliation <ul><li>Need for Affiliation - a manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close, intimate relationships with other people </li></ul>
    13. 13. 3 Motivational Need Theories Self-actualization Maslow Alderfer McClelland Higher Order Needs Lower Order Needs Esteem self interpersonal Safety & Security interpersonal physical Need for Achievement Need for Power Relatedness Need for Affiliation Existence Growth Belongingness (social & love) Physiological
    14. 14. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory <ul><li>Hygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to absence of complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>job enrichment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to superior performance & effort </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Traditional view Satisfaction No satisfaction Herzberg's view No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction Hygiene Factors Motivators
    16. 16. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction <ul><li>Company policy & administration </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Salary? </li></ul>Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
    17. 17. Hygiene Factors <ul><li>Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of pay </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul>Motivational Factors <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Career advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Job interest </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Dissatisfaction and demotivation Not dissatisfied but not motivated Positive satisfaction and motivation
    18. 18. Motivation-Hygiene Combinations (Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
    19. 19. Needs Theories Maslow Herzberg Hygiene Motivators Factors Social Safety Physiological Self-Actualisation Esteem
    20. 20. Adams’s Theory of Inequity <ul><li>Inequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving </li></ul>
    21. 21. Motivational Theory of Social Exchange Equity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs Inputs Negative Outcomes < Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs Positive Outcomes > Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs Person Comparison other
    22. 22. Strategies for Resolution of Inequity <ul><li>Alter the person’s outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Alter the person’s inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Alter the comparison other’s outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Alter the comparison other’s inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Change who is used as a comparison other </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalize the inequity </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the organizational situation </li></ul>
    23. 23. New Perspectives on Equity Theory <ul><li>Equity Sensitive </li></ul>I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other
    24. 24. New Perspectives on Equity Theory <ul><li>Benevolent </li></ul>I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other
    25. 25. New Perspectives on Equity Theory <ul><li>Entitled </li></ul>I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other
    26. 26. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Key Constructs <ul><li>Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards </li></ul>
    27. 27. Expectancy Theory (Vroom) 3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence 1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality Individual Effort Individual Performance Personal Goals Organisational Rewards 1 2 3
    28. 28. Expectancy Model of Motivation Performance Reward Effort Effort Perceived effort– performance probability Perceived value of reward Perceived performance– reward probability “ If I work hard, will I get the job done?” “ What rewards will I get when the job is well done?” “ What rewards do I value?”
    29. 29. How Expectancy Theory Works Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million Your tutor offers you £1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning. Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.
    30. 30. 3 Causes of Motivational Problems <ul><li>Belief that effort will not result in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that performance will not result in rewards </li></ul><ul><li>The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>The path-goal theory, also known as the path-goal theory of leader effectiveness or the path-goal model was  developed by Robert House, an Ohio State University graduate, in 1971 and revised in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory was inspired by the work of Martin G. Evans (1970). </li></ul><ul><li>The path-goal theory was also influenced by the expectancy theory of motivation developed by Victor Vroom in 1964 </li></ul>Origins of Path-Goal Theory
    32. 32. <ul><li>The path goal leadership theory is a model that tries to understand the work motivation of every individual. </li></ul><ul><li>It states the work motivation of any individual is dependent on his/her assessment on: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Whether the effort would lead to good performance 2. The probability of a reward as a result of the good performance 3. The value of this reward </li></ul><ul><li>The  Path-Goal Leadership Theory  states that by clarifying the path to achieving good performance and removing pitfalls and enhancing personal satisfaction for the job, a leader is able to effective motivate his subordinate in work. </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Directive behavior lets subordinates know what tasks need to be performed and how they should be performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive behavior lets subordinates know that their leader cares about their well-being and is looking out for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Participative behavior enables subordinates to be involved in making decisions that affect them. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement-oriented behavior pushes subordinates to do their best. Includes setting difficult goals for followers, expecting high performance, and expressing confidence. </li></ul>
    34. 34.
    35. 36. Goal Setting Goals Specific Difficult Accepted Effects on Person Directs attention Energises Encourages persistency New strategies developed Feedback Performance
    36. 37. Self-Motivation <ul><li>Self-fulfilment and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult goals lead to higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to act depends on the attractiveness of the outcome </li></ul>
    37. 38. Moral Maturity <ul><li>Moral Maturity - the measure of a person’s cognitive moral development </li></ul>Morally mature people behave and act based on universal ethical principles. Morally immature people behave and act based on egocentric motivations.
    38. 39. Begin with the end in mind <ul><li>What are your talents? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your ultimate career goal? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you achieve in 2 years? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your personal goals? </li></ul>