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Motivation and theories of motivation

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This PPT will tell you on what is Motivation, the features and importance of motivation, the Motivational theories and about Motivational Application.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Motivation and theories of motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION AND THEORIES OF MOTIVATION A PRESENTATION BY: SANJANA BHARADWAJ, III SEMESTER, BB.A.LL.B MU13BBALLB13
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO MOTIVATION IN LITERAL SENSE: The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose, and direction to behaviour. Motivation is one of the forces that lead to performance. Motivation is defined as the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal-directed behaviour.
  3. 3. FEATURES OF MOTIVATION Motivation is an internal feeling Motivation produces goal directed behaviour Motivation contains systems orientation Motivation can either be positive or negative Motivation is different from job satisfaction
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION oProductive use of resources oIncreased efficiency and output oAchievement of goals oDevelopment of friendly relationships oStability in workforce
  5. 5. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The theories of motivations are divided into three main categories: 1.Content Theories 2.Process theories 3.Reinforcement theory
  6. 6. CONTENT THEORIES 1. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY 2. ALDERFER’S ERG MODEL 3. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY 4. THEORY X AND THEORY Y 5. THEORY Z 6. MATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY 7. HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
  7. 7. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
  8. 8. 2. ALDERFER’S ERG MODEL Existence Needs It includes all material and physiological desires (e.g., food, water, air, clothing, safety, physical love and affection). Relatedness Needs Encompass social and external esteem; relationships with significant others like family, friends, co-workers and employers. This also means to be recognized and feel secure as part of a group or family. Growth Needs Internal esteem and self-actualization; these impel a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and the environment (e.g., to progress toward one's ideal self). This includes desires to be creative and productive, and to complete meaningful tasks.
  9. 9. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY David McClelland built on this work in his 1961 book, "The Achieving Society." Identified three motivators that he believed we all have: a need for achievement, a need for affiliation, and a need for power. According to McClelland, these motivators are learned (which is why this theory is sometimes called the Learned Needs Theory). Regardless of our gender, culture, or age, we all have three motivating drivers, and one of these will be our dominant motivating driver.
  10. 10. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION THEORY (contd..) Power need (n Pow): this is the need to dominate, influence and control others. Power speaks about the ability to manipulate or control the activities of others to suit one’s own purposes. Affiliation need (n Aff): the need for affiliation is a social need, for companionship and support, for developing meaningful relationship with people. Achievement need (n Ach): this is a need for challenge, for personal accomplishment and success in competitive situations.
  11. 11. THEORY X AND THEORY Y Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise‘
  12. 12. THEORY Z Theory Z is an approach to management based upon a combination of American and Japanese management philosophies. Theory Z was first identified as a unique management approach by William Ouchi in the 1981 book, Theory Z: How American Companies Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. It is characterised by: ◦ long-term job security, ◦ consensual decision making, ◦ slow evaluation and promotion procedures, ◦ and individual responsibility within a group context Sometimes considered a blend of the model Theory X and Theory Y, with more of a leaning towards Theory Y.
  13. 13. 6. MATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY Chris Argyris explored the concept of organizational learning. According to Argyris, seven changes should take place in the personality of individuals if they are to develop into mature people over the years. 1. First, individuals move from a passive state as infants to a state of increasing activity as adults. 2. Second, individuals develop from a state of dependency upon others as infants to a state of relative independence as adults. 3. Individuals behave in only a few ways as infants, but as adults they are capable of behaving in many ways.
  14. 14. MATURITY - IMMATURITY THEORY (Contd.) 4. Individuals have erratic, casual, and shallow interests as infants but develop deeper and stronger interests as adults. 5. The time perspective of children is very short, involving only the present, but as they mature, their time perspective increases to include the past and the future. 6. Individuals as infants are subordinate to everyone, but they move to equal or superior positions with others as adults. 7. As children, individuals lack an awareness of a "self," but as adults they are not only aware of, but they are able to control "self."
  15. 15. HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, also known as the motivation-hygiene theory or intrinsic/extrinsic motivation.
  16. 16. II. PROCESS THEORIES A. The Equity Theory B. The Expectancy theory C. The goal setting theory. D.Porter and Lawler Model
  17. 17. A. The Equity Theory John Stacey Adams' equity theory helps explain why pay and conditions alone do not determine motivation. It also explains why giving one person a promotion or pay-rise can have a demotivating effect on others. Inputs: time, effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance, determination, enthusiasm, personal sacrifice. Outputs: Typical outcomes are job security, esteem, salary, employee benefits, expenses, recognition, reputation, responsibility, sense of achievement, praise, thanks.
  18. 18. B. The Expectancy theory POSTULATED BY VICTOR VROOM. It presents a valid, comprehensive and useful approach to management. It is a choice model. Built around three concepts: 1. Valence. 2. Expectancy. 3. Instrumentality.
  19. 19. C. THE GOAL SETTING THEORY. Postulated by Edwin Locke. According to him, motivation is a result of rational and intentional behavior. Suggests that managers and subordinates should establish goals on a regular basis. Goals should be moderately difficult and specific.
  20. 20. D. Porter and Lawler Model POSTULATED BY PORTER AND LAWLER PROMOTED THE THESIS THAT PERFORMANCES CAUSES SATISFACTION. EXPLORED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE. PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION IS FUNCTION OF THREE IMPORTANT FACTORS: 1. DESIRE TO PERFORM. 2. MOTIVATION ALONE WILL NOT LEAD TO PERFORMANCE. 3. A PERSON MUST HAVE REQUSITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE TO DO A JOB. PERFORMANCE LEADS TO REWARDS.
  21. 21. III. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates.  It states that individual’s behaviour is a function of its consequences. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. The managers use the following methods for controlling the behaviour of the employees: ◦ 1. Positive Reinforcement ◦ 2. Negative Reinforcement ◦ 3. Punishment ◦ 4. Extinction
  22. 22. MOTIVATIONAL APPLICATION ;
  23. 23. What Is Employee Involvement? Employee Involvement Program A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success
  24. 24. Examples of Employee Involvement Programs Participative Management A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
  25. 25. Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (cont’d) Representative Participation Workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees. Works Councils Groups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted when manage-ment makes decisions involving personnel Board Representative A form of representative participation; employees sit on a company’s board of directors and represent the interests of the firm’s employees.
  26. 26. Alternative Work Arrangements Flextime Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core. Job Sharing The practice of having two or more people split a 40- hour-a-week job
  27. 27. Alternative Work Arrangements, cont. Telecommuting Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office. Categories of Telecommuting Jobs • Routine information-handling tasks • Mobile activities • Professional and other knowledge-related tasks
  28. 28. Examples of Employee Involvement Programs (cont’d) Quality Circle A work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions
  29. 29. Employee Recognition Programs  Intrinsic rewards: Stimulate Intrinsic Motivation – Personal attention given to employee – Approval and appreciation for a job well done – Growing in popularity and usage  Benefits of Programs – Fulfill employees’ desire for recognition – Inexpensive to implement – Encourages repetition of desired behaviors  Drawbacks of Programs – Susceptible to manipulation by management
  30. 30. From the Wall Street Journal, October 21, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Cartoon Features Syndicate.
  31. 31. Implications for Managers In Order to Motivate Employees: ◦ Recognize individual differences ◦ Use goals and feedback ◦ Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them ◦ Link rewards to performance ◦ Define the employees' role ◦ Offer training and development
  32. 32. CONCLUSION 1. Motivation is the work that a manager performs to inspire, encourage and compel people to accomplish desired goals. Properly motivated employees can produce excellent results by putting facilities to good use. 2. Understanding the complexities involved in motivating people is not an easy job since human behaviour is unpredictable and is the result of multiple causes. Three kinds of theories have evolved.

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