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Motivation Theories

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Motivation Theories

  1. 1. Motivation Theories First Year PT-MBA Marketing - Div A
  2. 2. 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  3. 3. 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  4. 4. What is Motivation <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>A process initiated by a physiological or psychological deficiency or need, which triggers a specific behavior or drive in order to achieve a Goal or Incentive. </li></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories Needs Drives Goal/ Incentive Motivation is the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain behaviors.
  5. 5. Need for motivation in organizations <ul><li>Higher productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working at 80-95% of their ability (compared to poorly-motivated employees who may work at only 20-30% of ability) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better quality work </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More feedback and suggestions for improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More feedback demanded from superiors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to organization </li></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  6. 6. Work Motivation Theories <ul><li>NEEDS THEORIES- What? </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow's Needs Hierarchy Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ERG Theory </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESS THEORY- How? </li></ul><ul><li>Vroom’s Expectancy Theory </li></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  7. 7. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  8. 8. Problems with Maslow’s Hierarchy <ul><li>Individual behavior may respond to several needs, rather than just one </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same need (e.g. the need to interact socially at work) may cause quite different behavior in different individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The model ignores the often-observed behavior of individuals who tolerate suffering (e.g. low pay) for the promise of future benefits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some critics suggest that Maslow’s model only really relates to the behavior of the middle classes in the UK and the USA (where the research was undertaken) </li></ul></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  9. 9. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  10. 10. Maslow Vs Herzberg 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  11. 11. Alderfer’s ERG Theory <ul><li>ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness & Growth </li></ul><ul><li>It is expansion of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. </li></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories Growth Existence Relatedness Self Actualization Self Esteem & Social Safety & Physiological
  12. 12. Maslow Vs ERG <ul><li>ERG proposes that people may be motivated by more than one kind of need at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow proposes that a person will satisfy the lower level needs before he moves up to the next level of needs and will stay at that need until it is satisfied. While n ERG, the person will move back to the lower level needs. </li></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  13. 13. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  14. 14. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory <ul><li>It predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>putting in more effort will yield better job performance - Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits - Instrumentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question - Valence </li></ul></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  15. 15. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Expectancy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations & levels of confidence about what is achievable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to motivate find the prerequisites of individuals qualification, resources, skills, knowledge, abilities & needed development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual perceptions if one really gets the desired reward(s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to motivate one must be consistent, observable, and accountable in the reward scheme/system. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attitude people have in respect to rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extrinsic factors - recognition, money, promotion, time-off, affiliation or benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intrinsic factors - increased self-esteem, fulfillment of personal standards etc. </li></ul></ul>05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories
  16. 16. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 05/13/10 PT MBA Mktg Div A (Roll No 19 to 24) Motivation Theories How Expectancy Theory Works?
  17. 17. Motivation Theories First Year PT-MBA Marketing - Div A

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