Motivation The process that accounts for an individual‟s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Where, Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: toward beneficial goal Persistence: how long a person tries
EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION The early theories of motivation include: MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEED framed by A. Maslow, a U.S. humanistic psychologist in which he explained that different human needs have different level of satisfaction. The hierarchy moves down from lower order needs such as physiological needs, safety and security, social needs to higher order that is esteem needs and self actualization needs. Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work.
HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY The theory revolves around the two basic factors associated with job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factor-(Work behavior) Motivation factor-(Job Satisfaction
JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction is in regard to ones feelings or state-of- mind regarding the nature of their work. Overall job satisfaction is actually a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction: Intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only the kind of work they do, the tasks that make up the job. Extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider the conditions of work, such as their pay, coworkers, and supervisor.
It is the need or drvie within an individual that dives him or her toward goal oriented action.The extent of drive depends on the prescibed level of satisfaction that can be achieved by the goal.
Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it. Below are some examples: Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our co-workers. Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know. Honor: We all need to respect the rules and to be ethical. Independence: We all need to feel we are unique. Order: We all need to be organized. Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence. Social contact: We all need to have some social interactions. Social Status: We all have the desire to feel important.
Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation means that the individuals motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual performing the task. Extrinsic motivation is external in nature. The most well-known and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some other examples: Employee of the month award Benefit package Bonuses Organized activities
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEED McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains validtoday for understanding human motivation, managementtraining, and personal development. Indeed, Maslows ideassurrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibilityof employers to provide a workplace environment thatencourages and enables employees to fulfill their own uniquepotential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever.Abraham Maslows book Motivation and Personality, published in1954 (second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs,and Maslow extended his ideas in other work, notably his laterbook Toward A Psychology Of Being, a significant and relevantcommentary, which has been revised in recent times by RichardLowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field ofmotivational psychology.
Mostly, literal requirements for human survival If not met, the human body cannot function Metabolic needs – air, water, food, rest Clothing, shelter – needed by even animals Could be classified as basic animal needs
Once physical needs are met, safety needs take over Personal including emotional Health and well-being Financial, job security Safety of property against natural disasters, calamities, wars, etc Law & order
Need to love and be loved Need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance Small groups – clubs, office teams, school/college houses Large groups – political parties, Sports teams, facebook
Need to be respected by others and in turn respect them Sense of contribution, to feel self-valued, in profession or hobby Lower - respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention Higher - self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom
What a man can be, he must be Intrinsic growth of what is already in a person Growth-motivated rather than deficiency- motivated Cannot normally be reached until other lower order needs are met Acceptance of facts, spontaneous, focused on problems outside self, without prejudice
Douglas Mcgregor, a professor of industrial Administration at MIT (USA) theorized that every person has certain basic assumptions about other people‟s attitude towards work and organisation the assumption is labeled as Theory X and Theory Y.
It is the traditional assumptions about the nature of people and states that- Average human being have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can. Because of this human characteristic of disliking work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organisational objectives. Average human beings prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little ambition, and want security above all.
The assumption under this are The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means for producing effort toward organisational objectives. People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of objectives to which they are committed. The degree of commitment to objectives is in proportion to the size of the rewards associated with their achievement. Average human beings learn, under proper conditions, not only to accept responsibility but also to seek it.
Herzberg‟s theory was based on a two-factor hypothesis that is factors leading to job satisfaction And factors leading to no job dissatisfaction. They were classified in two categories: Motivational factors Hygiene or maintenance factors
Recognition Advancement Responsibility Possibility of growth Achievement Work itself Motivational factors are directly related to the job itself. Present of such factor create a highly motivating situation, but their absence does not cause job dissatisfaction. These factors are „content oriented‟.
Company policy and administration Technical supervision Interpersonal relations with subordinates Salary Job security Personal life Working conditions Status Maintenance factors are „context oriented‟ their presence does not significantly motivate the person. The presence of such factors prevents dissatisfaction and maintains a certain level of motivation but any reduction in the availabilities of these factors is likely to affect motivation and bring down the level of performance. According to Herzberg, Hygiene factors can dissatisfy by their absence but they cannot satisfy by their presence.
Motivational Factors Hygiene factorsWhen present lead to When present, help insatisfaction and preventing dissatisfactionmotivation. but do not increase satisfaction or motivation.When absent prevents When absent increaseboth satisfaction and dissatisfaction with themotivation. job.
A Pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one‟s job or job experience Job satisfaction is in regard to ones feelings or state-of- mind regarding the nature of their work.
Job satisfaction is an emotional response of job situation Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet expectations Job satisfaction represent several related attitudes
There are five causes of job satisfaction.i) THE WORK ITSELF: The individual with interesting tast, opportunities for learning & chance to accept responsibilityii) PAY: The amount of financial remeneration that is received by the employeesiii) PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES: The chance for advancement in the organizationiv) SUPERVISION: The abilities of supervisor to provide technical assistance and behavioral supportv) CO-WORKER: The degree to which worker are technically proficient and socially supportive
Satisfaction and productivity “Happy workers are productive workers” is a myth, the concept “productive workers are likely to be happy workers” may hold good. Satisfaction and absenteeism There is a negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. Absenteeism increases with decrease in job satisfaction Satisfaction and turnover Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover , factors like alternative job opportunities, length of tenure, labour market condition will also efefct the turnover.