Yenna Monica D. P.
What is MOTIVATION?
Derived from the Latin word
„MOVERE‟ which means
„to move‟
The processes that account for an
individua...
 Effort
- concerns the magnitude or intensity of
employee‟s work – related behaviour.
 Direction
- quality of an employe...
3 Major Types of Motivation Theories
 Content Theories of Motivation
WHAT motivates us
 Process Theories
WHY and HOW mot...
Type Characteristic
s
Theories Example
Content
Concerned
With
identifying
specific factors
that motivates
people
*Need
Hie...
Content Perspectives on Motivation
• Content Perspectives
– Approaches to motivation that try to
answer the question, “Wha...
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Content Theories of Motivation
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Existence refers to our concern with basic material
existence requirements; what Maslow called physi...
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Frustration – Regression
Enough remuneration
Provision for health insurance
Increasing use of teams ...
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
• Taught psychology at MIT.
• At Antioch College, McGregor found that his
classroom teach...
THEORY X THEORY Y
• Work is inherently
distasteful to most people.
• Most people are not
ambitious, have little
desire for...
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation
• Developed a unique and exciting
motivation theory
• Frederick Herzberg's theory...
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation
Content Theories of Motivation
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation
Content Theories of Motivation
Job satisfaction and Job dissatisfaction are impor...
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation
Theories of Motivation
TIPS THAT CAN HELP SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IMPROVE
TEACHER J...
Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of
Motivation
Content Theories of Motivation
Herzberg‟s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
– Job satisfa...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
People acquire or learn certain
needs from their
•C...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
Three-Needs Theory
There are three major acquired n...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
Need for Achievement ( nAch)
• they want to accompl...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
Need for Power( nPow)
• people with a high need for...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
Need for Power( nPow)
• people with a high need for...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
HIGH NEED OF POWER AND
ACHIEVEMENT
critical for hig...
David McClelland’s Learned Needs
Theory
Content Theories of Motivation
Need for Competence
• desires to do quality work
• ...
COMPARISON of CONTENT THEORIES
of MOTIVATION
Yenna Monica D. P.
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Theories of Motivation - Overview of the Content Theories of Motivation

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Theories of Motivation - Overview of the Content Theories of Motivation

  1. 1. Yenna Monica D. P.
  2. 2. What is MOTIVATION? Derived from the Latin word „MOVERE‟ which means „to move‟ The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.
  3. 3.  Effort - concerns the magnitude or intensity of employee‟s work – related behaviour.  Direction - quality of an employee‟s work – that is the investment of sustained effort in a direction that benefits the employer.  Persistence - concerns the sustained efforts employee manifested in their work- related activities
  4. 4. 3 Major Types of Motivation Theories  Content Theories of Motivation WHAT motivates us  Process Theories WHY and HOW motivation occurs  Reinforcement Theories HOW outcomes influence behaviors
  5. 5. Type Characteristic s Theories Example Content Concerned With identifying specific factors that motivates people *Need Hierarchy *Existence relatedness growth •Motivation – Hygiene • Learned needs Satisfying people’s needs for pay, Promotion and recognition
  6. 6. Content Perspectives on Motivation • Content Perspectives – Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, “What factors in the workplace motivate people?” • Content Perspectives of Motivation – Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs – Aldefer‟s ERG Theory – McGregory‟s Theory X and Theory Y – Herzberg‟s Two-Factor Theory – McClelland‟s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs 
  7. 7. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Content Theories of Motivation
  8. 8. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called physiological and safety needs. Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslow's social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need. Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need, and self-actualization ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may be operative at the same time Alderfer also deals with frustration-regression. That is, if a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual then seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need. Content Theories of Motivation
  9. 9. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Frustration – Regression Enough remuneration Provision for health insurance Increasing use of teams and committee‟s ERG Theory Findings: Cultural differences influence needs, needs are influenced by individual‟s Personal values People are motivated by different Needs at different times in their lives.
  10. 10. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Taught psychology at MIT. • At Antioch College, McGregor found that his classroom teaching of human relations did not always work in practice. • From these experiences, his ideas evolve and lead him to recognize the influence of assumptions we make about people and our managerial style. Content Theories of Motivation McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y – Theory X • Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. – Theory Y • Assumes that workers can exercise self- direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. – Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
  11. 11. THEORY X THEORY Y • Work is inherently distasteful to most people. • Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. • Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems. • Motivation occurs only at the physiological and safety levels. • Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives. • Work is as natural as play, if the conditions are favorable. • Self-control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals. • The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. • Motivation occurs at the social, esteem, and self- actualization levels, as well as physiological and security levels. • People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated.
  12. 12. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation • Developed a unique and exciting motivation theory • Frederick Herzberg's theory of motivation is also called 'Two Factor Theory', 'Dual Factor Theory' and 'Hygiene / Maintenance Theory of Motivation‟ • focused attention on the work environment to identify factors that arouse in people either positive or negative attitudes toward their work. Content Theories of Motivation
  13. 13. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation Content Theories of Motivation
  14. 14. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation Content Theories of Motivation Job satisfaction and Job dissatisfaction are important concepts of Herzberg‟s motivation – hygiene theory. School administrators may neglect to consider that dissatisfied teachers may weaken the educational program. Basic motivational principles and techniques can help administrators meet teacher needs.
  15. 15. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation Theories of Motivation TIPS THAT CAN HELP SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IMPROVE TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION a. USE PRAISE TO RECOGNIZE EXEMPLARY BEHAVIOUR b. ROTATE FACULTY MEETING LOCATIONS c. INSTITUTE A “5-10 REPORT” FROM TEACHERS d. EMPOWER TEACHERS e. RECOGNIZE GROUP ACCOMPLISHMENTS f. DO NOT OVELOOK LITTLE THINGS g. CREATE A “ BRAGGING WALL” IN THE FACULTY ROOM h. FOLLOW UP ON REQUEST/S i. SELECT A FACULTY MEMBER OF THE MONTH j. INSTITUTE A TEACHER FOR A DAY PROGRAM
  16. 16. Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation Content Theories of Motivation Herzberg‟s Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. • Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. • Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. – Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. • The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction
  17. 17. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation People acquire or learn certain needs from their •Culture •Family •Personal and occupational experiences •Type of organization for which a person works
  18. 18. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation Three-Needs Theory There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work: – Need for achievement (nAch) • The drive to excel and succeed – Need for power (nPow) • The need to influence the behavior of others – Need of affiliation (nAff) • The desire for interpersonal relationships
  19. 19. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation Need for Achievement ( nAch) • they want to accomplish reasonably challenging but attainable goals through their own effort. • they prefer working alone rather than in teams • they choose tasks with a moderate degree of difficulty
  20. 20. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation Need for Power( nPow) • people with a high need for power want to influence others, take control and change people and/or situations • rely on persuasive communication and make suggestions in meetings
  21. 21. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation Need for Power( nPow) • people with a high need for power want to influence others, take control and change people and/or situations • rely on persuasive communication and make suggestions in meetings two types of power: personalized power •enjoy their power for its own sake, use it to advance personal interest , display it as a status symbol Socialized power •have an interest in organizational goals, have a desire to be useful to the organization and society •more effective administrators; •exercises power for the benefit of others
  22. 22. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation HIGH NEED OF POWER AND ACHIEVEMENT critical for high-performing administrators People with these high needs are particularly good at increasing moral, creating clear expectations for achievement
  23. 23. David McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Content Theories of Motivation Need for Competence • desires to do quality work • wants to develop skills Need for Affiliation (N-Affil) • need to feel a sense of involvement and "belonging" within a social group
  24. 24. COMPARISON of CONTENT THEORIES of MOTIVATION
  25. 25. Yenna Monica D. P.

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