Theories of motivation


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Theories of motivation

  1. 1. Theories of motivation Submitted To :->Miss Namita Jain Submitted By:-> Shakshi Ranawat Class:-> MCA 4th semester
  2. 2. Contents of Discussion  What is motivation ?  Why motivation needed ?  Characteristics of motivation  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Herzberg theory  Douglas McGregor’s theory X and theory Y
  3. 3. What is motivation ?  Motivation is one of the key factors driving us towards achieving something. Without motivation, we will do nothing. Therefore, motivation is one of the key aspects when it comes to corporate management. In order to achieve the best business results, the organization needs to keep employees motivated. • “Motivation is the act of stimulating someone to get a desired course of action.”
  4. 4. Characteristics of motivation  Personal and Internal Feeling  Art of Stimulating Someone Or Oneself  Motivation can be either Positive or Negative  Motivation can be either Positive or Negative  Motivation is System Oriented  Motivation is a Sort of Bargaining  Motivation is different from Satisfaction
  5. 5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  According to this theory, human behavior is related to his/her needs, and is adjusted as per the nature of needs to be satisfied.  Maslow identified 5 sets of human needs arranged in a hierarchy based on their importance and priority.  When one set of needs have been met, they cease to be a motivating factor, causing the next set to take its place.
  6. 6. Why motivation needed?  Now days everyone wants to start their own business. You cannot expect them to commit all their energy to the company. you have to find common ground and respect their wishes.  In order to motivate the employees, organizations do various activities. The activities the companies do basically the results and findings of certain motivational theories.
  7. 7. Maslow's hierarchy of need categories is the most famous example: 1.Physiological 2.Safety 3.Love 4.Esteem 5.Self-Actualization
  8. 8. Continues…… 1.Physiological Needs  These are the basic needs for air , water , food , sleep, shelter and other bodily needs.  These needs are independent of each other.  Employees are motivated by salary and wages , healthy working condition and basic amenities . 2.Safety Needs  Needs for protection against danger , threats and accident arise.  Employees are motivated by providing good home , fresh air , water , hygienic work environment , Safe working condition .  Security of job also motivate the employees.
  9. 9. Continues… 3.Social Needs  Need for love , affection and affiliation arise.  Individual want to become a part of group and want to be loved and guided by the group and wants to have a respected place in the society  An individual wants friendly relationships with people at work place
  10. 10. Continues… 4.Esteem Needs  Everyone has a need for self-respect.  This produces the desire for strength, confidence, prestige, recognition and appreciation.  These needs are rarely fully satisfied. 5.Self-actualization Needs  This need is highest level needs. in this need the person want to become example setter . people prefer growth achievement and out standing performance  In this need the employee want challanging job as they want to become innovative and creative
  11. 11. Herzberg theory  The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, two kinds of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways:
  12. 12. Hygiene factors.  These are factors whose absence motivates, but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things that when you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get them back.
  13. 13. Hygi ene Fact ors Rate of Pay Qual ity of Supe rvisi on Job Secu rity Company Policies Relat ion with Othe rs
  14. 14. Motivators.  These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate.
  15. 15. Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction  Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena.  The opposite of Satisfaction is ‘No Satisfaction’ but not dissatisfaction.  The opposite of Dissatisfaction is ‘No Dissatisfaction’ but not Satisfaction.  So hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction. The two scales are independent, and you can be high on both
  16. 16. Continues….  Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction.  Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
  17. 17. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Company policy & administration • Supervision • Interpersonal relations • Working conditions • Salary • Status • Security • Achievement • Achievement recognition • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth • Salary Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
  18. 18. Step One: Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction  Herzberg called the causes of dissatisfaction "hygiene factors". To get rid of them, you need to:  Fix poor and obstructive company policies.  Provide effective, supportive and non-intrusive supervision.  Create and support a culture of respect and dignity for all team members.  Ensure that wages are competitive.  Build job status by providing meaningful work for all positions.  Provide job security. All of these actions help you eliminate job dissatisfaction in your organization. And there's no point trying to motivate people until these issues are out of the way! You can't stop there, though. Remember, just because someone is not dissatisfied, it doesn't mean he or she is satisfied either! Now you have to turn your attention to building job satisfaction.
  19. 19. Step Two: Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction To create satisfaction, Herzberg says you need to address the motivating factors associated with work. He called this "job enrichment". His premise was that every job should be examined to determine how it could be made better and more satisfying to the person doing the work. Things to consider include:  Providing opportunities for achievement.  Recognizing workers' contributions.  Creating work that is rewarding and that matches the skills and abilities of the worker.  Giving as much responsibility to each team member as possible.  Providing opportunities to advance in the company through internal promotions.  Offering training and development opportunities, so that people can pursue the positions they want within the company.
  20. 20. The 2008 graph diagram is based on the total percentages of 'First- Level' factors arising in Herzberg's 1959 research of high and low attitude events among 200 engineers and accountants, encompassing short and long duration feelings.
  21. 21. Conclusion  Correcting hygiene matters will improve the working environment, and help reduce contentment displayed by the workers; keeping them happy as well.  Because of this both the business and the workers are likely to benfit. This will make the workers content, and motivated. Motivated workers will allow for an increase in their productivity
  22. 22. Douglas McGregor’s theory Y  Are willing to work  Are capable of self control  Accept responsibility  Are imaginative and creative  Self-directed Manager Assumes that worker……..
  23. 23. Continues….  Work is natural as play ,if the conditions are favorable.  Self- control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals.  The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population .  Motivation occurs at the social ,esteem and self actualization levels as well as physiological and security levels.  People can be self directed and creative at work if properly motivated.
  24. 24. Douglas McGregor’s theory X  According to This theory, managers believe workers  Dislike work  Lack ambition  Are irresponsible  Are resistant to change  Prefer to be led
  25. 25. Continues…  Most people are not ambitious , have little desire for responsibility , and prefer to be directed.  Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems  Motivation occurs only at the physiological and safety levels.  Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives.
  26. 26. Conclusion  Motivation basically refers to need, ability and rewards.  For Unskilled workers required theory X.  For skill worker need to theory Y.  In GURU movie Abhishek Bachchan who performing the role of Gurukant Desai use Both theory, i.e Theory X and Theory Y. For achieve his goals he self-motivated and also motivate to others.