Focus on the Followers <br />Human Resource Management Department<br />University of Kelaniya<br />
Leadership behavior makes satisfied followers.<br />Satisfied followers makes organizational citizenship behavior.<br />Ac...
“Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.”<br /><ul><li>William Scott
As against this, McFarland has defined it as follows:
“ Motivation refers to the way urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings, needs direct, control or explain the behavi...
The psychological Process of Motivation<br />    An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives with in indivi...
Need Theories<br />Cognitive Theories<br />Individual Difference<br />Situational Theories<br />Motivational Approaches<br />
Major theme is to Satisfy needs to change behavior.<br />Maslow’s hierarchy of needs<br />Alderfer’s ERG theory<br />Need ...
The hierarchy of needs Theory<br />
Unsatisfied need drives towards the behavior<br />Satisfied need is no longer working as a motivational factor<br />Lower ...
Existence Needs<br />Relatedness Needs<br />Growth Needs<br />ERG Theory ( By Clayton Alderfer)<br />
Characteristics of Goals<br />Goals should be specific<br />Goals should be attainable but challenging<br />Goals require ...
Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)<br />Goal-Setting Theory<br />The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedbac...
.<br />Equity Theory<br />Equity Theory<br />Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and th...
Equity Theory (cont’d)<br />
Expectancy Theory<br />Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)<br />The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on...
6–15<br />Expectancy Theory Relationships<br />Effort–Performance Relationship<br />The probability that exerting a given ...
Achievement Orientation<br />Values<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />Individual differences in Motivation<br />
nPow<br />nAch<br />nAff<br />Three Needs theory ( David McClelland)Need for achievementNeed for powerNeed for affiliation...
Operant Approach<br />Rewards<br />Punishment<br />Extinction<br />Situational Approach<br />
Implementation of an Operant system<br />Leadership practitioners need to clearly specify what behaviors are important.<br...
Empowerment having  two key components. <br />For leaders to truly empower employees, they must delegate leadership and de...
The empowerment Continum<br />
Why do People Leave Organizations<br />Limited recognition and praise<br />Compensation<br />Limited Authority<br />Person...
Why Do People stay with Organizations<br />Promises of long-term employment<br />Supports training and education<br />Hire...
Two factor Theory<br />Organizational Justice<br />Theories of job Satisfaction<br />
Hygiene factors                     Motivational Factors<br />Present                         mid point                 Pr...
Two Factor Theory<br />
Overall, I am satisfied with my job.<br />I feel the workload is about equal for everyone in the organization.<br />My sup...
Organizational Justice<br />Distributive Justice<br />Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among ind...
Performance is a broader concept than motivation, as abilities, skills, group norms and the  availability of resources can...
The other next theories examined motivation in terms of individual differences, emphasizing a person’s intrinsic motivatio...
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  1. 1. Focus on the Followers <br />Human Resource Management Department<br />University of Kelaniya<br />
  2. 2. Leadership behavior makes satisfied followers.<br />Satisfied followers makes organizational citizenship behavior.<br />Accomplishment of common goal.<br />Relationship between Leadership, Motivation, Job satisfaction and Performance<br />
  3. 3. “Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.”<br /><ul><li>William Scott
  4. 4. As against this, McFarland has defined it as follows:
  5. 5. “ Motivation refers to the way urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings, needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human beings.” </li></ul>Definitions of Motivation<br />
  6. 6. The psychological Process of Motivation<br /> An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives with in individuals. These drives generate a search behavior to find particular goals that , if attained, will satisfy the need and lead to the reduction of tension.<br />Motivation Process<br />
  7. 7. Need Theories<br />Cognitive Theories<br />Individual Difference<br />Situational Theories<br />Motivational Approaches<br />
  8. 8. Major theme is to Satisfy needs to change behavior.<br />Maslow’s hierarchy of needs<br />Alderfer’s ERG theory<br />Need Theories<br />
  9. 9. The hierarchy of needs Theory<br />
  10. 10. Unsatisfied need drives towards the behavior<br />Satisfied need is no longer working as a motivational factor<br />Lower level needs should be fulfilled to raise the higher level needs<br />Principles of needs theory<br />
  11. 11. Existence Needs<br />Relatedness Needs<br />Growth Needs<br />ERG Theory ( By Clayton Alderfer)<br />
  12. 12. Characteristics of Goals<br />Goals should be specific<br />Goals should be attainable but challenging<br />Goals require commitment<br />Goals require feedback<br />Goal setting Theory ( Locke & Latham)<br />
  13. 13. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)<br />Goal-Setting Theory<br />The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.<br />Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship:<br />Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.<br />Self-EfficacyThe individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.<br />
  14. 14. .<br />Equity Theory<br />Equity Theory<br />Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.<br />Referent Comparisons:<br />Self-inside<br />Self-outside<br />Other-inside<br />Other-outside<br />
  15. 15. Equity Theory (cont’d)<br />
  16. 16. Expectancy Theory<br />Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)<br />The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.<br />
  17. 17. 6–15<br />Expectancy Theory Relationships<br />Effort–Performance Relationship<br />The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.<br />Performance–Reward Relationship<br />The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.<br />Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship<br />The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.<br />
  18. 18. Achievement Orientation<br />Values<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />Individual differences in Motivation<br />
  19. 19. nPow<br />nAch<br />nAff<br />Three Needs theory ( David McClelland)Need for achievementNeed for powerNeed for affiliation<br />
  20. 20. Operant Approach<br />Rewards<br />Punishment<br />Extinction<br />Situational Approach<br />
  21. 21. Implementation of an Operant system<br />Leadership practitioners need to clearly specify what behaviors are important.<br />Leadership practitioners need to determine if those behaviors are currently being punished, rewarded or ignored.<br />Leadership practitioners need to find out what followers actually find rewarding and punishing.<br />Leadership practitioners need to be wary of creating perceptions of inequity when administering individually tailored rewards.<br />Leadership practitioners should not limit themselves to administering organizationally sanctioned rewards and punishments.<br />
  22. 22. Empowerment having two key components. <br />For leaders to truly empower employees, they must delegate leadership and decision making down to the lowest level possible.<br />Secondly equipping followers with resources, knowledge and skills necessary to make good decisions.<br />Empowerment<br />
  23. 23. The empowerment Continum<br />
  24. 24. Why do People Leave Organizations<br />Limited recognition and praise<br />Compensation<br />Limited Authority<br />Personal Conflicts<br />Understanding and Influencing followers satisfaction<br />
  25. 25. Why Do People stay with Organizations<br />Promises of long-term employment<br />Supports training and education<br />Hires/keeps hard-working, smart people<br />Encourages fun, collegial relationships<br />
  26. 26. Two factor Theory<br />Organizational Justice<br />Theories of job Satisfaction<br />
  27. 27. Hygiene factors Motivational Factors<br />Present mid point Present Satisfaction<br />Dissatisfaction<br />Two factor theory ( Motivation – hygiene theory)<br />
  28. 28. Two Factor Theory<br />
  29. 29. Overall, I am satisfied with my job.<br />I feel the workload is about equal for everyone in the organization.<br />My supervisor handles conflicts well.<br />My pay and benefits are comparable to those in other organizations.<br />There is a real future for people in this organization.<br />Exceptional performance is rewarded in this organization.<br />We have a good health care plan in this organization.<br />In general, I am Satisfied with my life and where it is going.<br />Typical Items on a satisfaction Questionnaire<br />
  30. 30. Organizational Justice<br />Distributive Justice<br />Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.<br />Procedural Justice<br />The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.<br />
  31. 31. Performance is a broader concept than motivation, as abilities, skills, group norms and the availability of resources can all affect followers’ levels of performance.<br />Job satisfaction is a set of attitudes that peoples have about work.<br />In motivational theories Maslow’s hierachy of neds and Alderfer’s existence-relatdeness-growth (ERG) theory assume that people are motivated to satisfy a universal set of needs.<br />Summary<br />
  32. 32. The other next theories examined motivation in terms of individual differences, emphasizing a person’s intrinsic motivation to perform a particular task, their personal values or a person’s general level of achievement orientation.<br />Other theories of Goal setting , equity theory, self efficacy and expectancy theory examined motivation from a cognitive perspective.<br />
  33. 33. Empowerment, operant approach examined motivation from a situational perspective.<br />Leadership practitioners likely will be more effective if they learn to recognize situation where various approaches or the insights particular to them, may be differently useful.<br />Leaders may also increases the satisfaction levels by giving followers more meaningful work and by treating them fairly.<br />
  34. 34. Followers are more likely to have positive attitudes about work if they believe that what they do is important and that the reward and disciplinary systems are fair and just.<br />

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