Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. MOTIVATION<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Critical Concepts Of Motivation<br />What is Motivation?<br />Elements Of Work Motivation<br />Four General Approaches to Motivation<br />Early Theories Of Motivation<br />Theories Of Motivation<br />Case Study<br />
  3. 3. Behavior- INFER motivation<br /> Performance- evaluation of behavior<br />– Typing speed<br /> Ability- Determines behavior<br /> Situational Constraints -impact behavior<br /> Motivation- What you will do (rather<br />than what you can do)<br />Critical concepts in motivation<br />
  4. 4. Motivating<br />Motivation is very much a function of the context of a person’s work and personal life. That context is greatly influenced by cultural variables, which affect the attitudes and behaviors of individuals (and groups) on the job<br />
  5. 5. Elements of Work Motivation <br />Which behaviors does a<br />person choose to perform<br />In an organization?<br />Direction of Behavior<br />How hard does a person <br />work to perform a <br />chosen behavior?<br />Level of Effort<br />When faced with obstacles<br />how hard does a person keep<br /> trying to perform a<br />chosen behavior successfully?<br />Level of Persistence<br />
  6. 6. The Motivation Equation<br />Inputs:<br />Effort<br />Time<br />Education<br />Experience<br />Skills<br />Knowledge<br />Job behaviors<br />Performance:<br />Quantity<br />Quality<br />Level of <br />customer <br />service<br />Outcomes:<br />Pay<br />Job security<br />Benefits<br />Vacation<br />Satisfaction<br />Pleasure<br />
  7. 7. Motivation<br />Intrinsic<br />actually performing the behavior<br />Behavior performed for its own sake <br />Extrinsic<br />Based on acquisition of material or social rewards or<br />
  8. 8. The Intrinsic-Extrinsic Dichotomy<br />Two sets of needs that motivate workers<br />Motivational Factors (Intrinsic)<br />Maintenance Factors (Extrinsic)<br />Research on managers in Greece found that:<br />People are motivated more by the nature of the work<br />Dissatisfactions resulted from conditions surrounding the work<br />
  9. 9. Motivating people<br />An important role of a manager is to motivate the people working on a project.<br />Motivation is a complex issue but it appears that their are different types of motivation based on:<br />Basic needs (e.g. food, sleep, etc.);<br />Personal needs (e.g. respect, self-esteem);<br />Social needs (e.g. to be accepted as part of a group).<br />
  10. 10. Four General Approaches to Motivation<br />Behavioral<br />Humanistic<br />Cognitive<br />Sociocultural<br />
  11. 11. Behavioral Approach<br />Rewards are consequences of behaviors<br />Incentives encourage or discourage behaviors<br />
  12. 12. Humanistic Approaches<br />Third force psychology<br />Emphasis on personal choice<br />Needs<br />Self-actualization/Self-determination<br />Maslow’s hierarchy<br />
  13. 13. Cognitive Perspective<br />Focus on thinking<br />Emphasizes intrinsic motivation <br />People are active and curious <br />Plans, goals, schemas, and expectations<br />
  14. 14. Cognitive Perspective<br />Attribution theory<br />Perceived cause of successes or failures<br />Locus<br />Stability<br />Responsibility<br />Attributions in the classroom<br />Teacher actions influence student attributions<br />Expectancy X Value Theory<br />
  15. 15. Copyright © 2004 by Allyn and Bacon<br />Sociocultural Conceptions of Motivation<br />Emphasizes participation in communities of practice<br />Legitimate peripheral participation<br />Relate to authentic tasks<br />See table 10.2, Woolfolk, p. 358 for a comparison of all four approaches<br />
  16. 16. Early Theories of Motivation<br />Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory<br />McGregor’s theory X and theory Y<br />Herzberg’ motivation-hygiene theory <br />
  17. 17. Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Self-<br />actualization<br />self-development<br />and realization<br />5<br />Esteem needs<br />self-esteem, recognition<br />4<br />Social needs<br />sense of belonging, love<br />3<br />Safety need<br />security, protection<br />2<br />Physiological needs<br />food, water, shelter<br />1<br />
  18. 18. Need satisfaction<br />Social<br />Provide communal facilities;<br />Allow informal communications.<br />Esteem<br />Recognition of achievements;<br />Appropriate rewards.<br />Self-realization<br />Training - people want to learn more;<br />Responsibility.<br />
  19. 19. The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context<br />How applicable are motivation theories proposed by Maslow and Herzberg in the international context?<br />Haire, Ghiselli and Porter’s survey concluded that Maslow’s needs, in particular the upper-level ones, are important at the managerial level, although the managers reported that the degree to which their needs were fulfilled did not live up to their expectations.<br />Ronen concluded that need clusters are constant across nationalities and that Maslow’s need hierarchy is confirmed by these clusters. Also, Herzberg’s categories are confirmed by the cross-national need clusters..<br />
  20. 20. The Needs Hierarchy in the International Context<br />Ronen’s need clusters<br />Job goals, such as working area, work time, physical working conditions, fringe benefits, and job security;<br />Relationships with co-workers and supervisors; and<br />Work challenges and opportunities for using skills.<br />
  21. 21. Alderfer’sERG Theory<br />
  22. 22. Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory<br />Motivation-hygiene Theory assumes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction.<br />
  23. 23. Motivators <br />Hygiene factors<br />Achievement<br />Recognition<br />Work itself<br />Responsibility<br />Advancement<br />Growth<br />Supervision <br /> Company policy<br /> Relationship with supervisor<br /> Working conditions<br /> Salary <br /> Relationship with peers<br /> Personal life<br /> Relationship with subordinates<br /> Status <br /> Security <br />Extremely<br />Satisfied<br />Neutral <br />Extremely<br />Dissatisfied<br />Herzberg’ Motivation-hygiene Theory<br />
  24. 24. Traditional view<br />Satisfaction <br />Dissatisfaction <br />Hygiene factors<br />Motivators<br />Satisfaction <br />No satisfaction<br />No dissatisfaction<br />Dissatisfaction<br />Herzberg’s View<br />contrasting views of satisfaction-dissatisfaction<br />
  25. 25. Theory X<br />Theory X offered by McGregor assumes that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. It is a negative view about people.<br />
  26. 26. A manager who view employees from a Theory X perspective believes:<br />Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it.<br />Because employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve desired goals.<br />Employees will shirk responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.<br />Most works place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.<br />
  27. 27. Theory Y<br />Theory Y assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. It is a positive view about people. <br />
  28. 28. A manager who view employees from a Theory Y perspective believes:<br />Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play<br />Men and women will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives<br />The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility<br />The ability to make good decisions widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of managers. <br />
  29. 29. Theories of Motivation<br />Need Theory<br />Expectancy Theory<br />Equity Theory<br />Procedural Justice Theory<br />
  30. 30. Three-needs theory recognizes that the need for achievement, power, and affiliation are major motives in work. <br />
  31. 31. Need for achievement: The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.<br />Need for power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.<br />Need for affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.<br />
  32. 32. Equity Theory<br />Outcomes<br />Pay<br />Fringe benefits<br />Job satisfaction<br />Status<br />Opportunities for advancement<br />Job security<br />Inputs<br />Special skills<br />Training<br />Education<br />Work experience<br />Effort on the job<br />Time<br />
  33. 33. Equity Theory<br />Inputs lead to outcomes<br />Objective level of outcomes does not determine work motivation<br />Outcome/input ratio compared to ratio of referent others leads to work motivation<br />
  34. 34. Table 6.4 Conditions of Equity and Inequity<br />
  35. 35. Equity Theory Propositions<br />If paid according to time, overrewarded employees will produce more than equitably paid employees. <br />If paid according to quantity of production, overrewarded employees will produce fewer but higher-quality units than equitably paid employees.<br />
  36. 36. If paid according to time, underrewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output.<br />If paid according to quantity of production, underrewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees. <br />
  37. 37. Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way on the basis of the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.<br />
  38. 38. Figure 6.3 Expectancy Theory<br />
  39. 39. Individual<br /> performance <br />Individual<br />effort<br />A<br />B<br />Individual<br />goals<br />Organizational<br />reward<br />C<br />A<br />=Effort-performance linkage<br />=Performance-reward linkage<br />B<br />=Attractive<br />C<br />Simplified Expectancy Theory<br />
  40. 40. JCM—five Core Job Dimensions<br />Skill variety:the degree to which the job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talents<br />Task identity:the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.<br />Task significance:the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people.<br />
  41. 41. Autonomy: the degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.<br />Feedback: the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual’s obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.<br />Motivating Potential Score(MPS)<br />╳autonomy ╳feedback<br />
  42. 42. Critical<br />Psychological<br />states<br />Personal<br />and work<br />outcomes<br />Core job<br />dimensions<br />High internal<br />work motivation<br />Skill variety<br />Task identity<br />Task significant<br />Experienced<br />Meaningfulness of <br />the work<br />High-quality<br />work performance<br />Experienced<br />responsibility for<br />outcomes of the work<br />Autonomy <br />High-satisfaction<br />with the work<br />Low absenteeism<br />and turnover<br />Knowledge of the<br />actual results of the <br />work activities<br />Feedback<br />Employee growth-need<br />strength<br />the Job Characteristics Model<br />
  43. 43. High nAch<br />Equity<br />Comparison<br />Performance<br />Evaluation<br />criteria<br />Ability <br />Individual<br />effort<br />Task<br />complexity<br />Individual<br />performance<br />Organizational<br />rewards<br />Individual<br />goals<br />Objective<br />performance<br />evaluation<br />system<br />Dominant<br />needs<br /> Reinforcement <br />Goals direct behavior<br />Integrating Theories of Motivation<br />
  44. 44. Procedural Justice Theory<br />Higher motivation occurs when procedures used to make decisions are perceived as fair<br />Factors for determination of fairness<br />Interpersonal treatment of employees<br />Extent to which managers explain decisions to employees<br />
  45. 45. <ul><li>Locke & Latham
  46. 46. Goals are the focus of our motivation, and the
  47. 47. direct our behavior
  48. 48. 2 conditions must be met:
  49. 49. • Must be aware of the goal and know how to accomplish it
  50. 50. • Must accept the goal and be willing to work for it
  51. 51. Difficult = higher performance
  52. 52. Specific = better for motivation
  53. 53. Feedback = guides level of effort</li></ul>Goal Setting Theory<br />
  54. 54. Social Learning Theory – Albert Bandura<br /> • Learn by observation of others seeing the consequences and rewards of actions<br />Self-Efficacy Theory<br /> –Performance is influenced by 2 things:<br /> •Self-efficacy Expectancy – Can I do this<br /> •Outcome Expectancy – Performance desired results<br />Social Learning Theory &Self-Efficacy Theory<br />
  55. 55. <ul><li>Stems from Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
  56. 56. “An action is strengthened/weakened by its own</li></ul> consequence”<br /><ul><li> Three Key Variables</li></ul> • Stimulus – condition that elicits a behavioral resp.<br /> • Response – performance<br /> • Reward – value given based on that response<br /><ul><li> Reinforcement classification:</li></ul> • Reinforcer increase likelihood of behavior<br /> • Primary – innate reinforcement properties<br /> • Secondary – allows acquisition of primary reinforce<br /> • Positive – presented when the behavior occurs<br /> • Negative – something negative is removed<br /> • (Punishment – decrease likelihood of behavior)<br />Reinforcement Theory<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li>Can have different reinforcement schedules:</li></ul> • Continuous – reinforce every desired response<br /> • Partial – reinforce some desired responses<br /> • Fixed Interval – after a fixed amount of time<br /> • Fixed Ratio – after a fixed number of behaviors<br /> • Variable Interval – after an interval of time that varies<br /> • Variable Ratio – after a number of behaviors that varies<br /><ul><li> Extinction & Habituation
  58. 58. Other issues with reinforcement</li></ul>Reinforcement Theory (2)<br />
  59. 59. Opening Case: Motivating Employees at SAS Institute<br />How can organizations continue to grow and have satisfied employees in the hard times as well as the good times?<br />SAS – the largest privately owned software company in the world<br />9,000 employees<br />1 of the 100 Best Companies to Work for in America and 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers<br />
  60. 60. <ul><li>SAS has always strived to ensure that its employees enjoy and are motivated by the work they perform as part of their jobs. Managers are also concerned with fairly and equitably rewarding employees for a job well done. Pay and bonuses are linked to performance. A founding and enduring principle of the company is that managers should treat employees the way the managers want to be treated themselves.
  61. 61. SAS offers benefits beyond equitable financial rewards including a beautiful work environment, 35-hour work weeks, two on-site and low-cost child care facilities, a fitness and recreation center, on-site medical care, a putting green, and a cafeteria. </li></li></ul><li>THANK YOU<br />By: Robin Smith<br />Email-robinsmith1985@gmail.com<br />9035699161<br />

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