Physical Science Chapter 1 Sections 1, 2, and 3
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Physical Science Chapter 1 Sections 1, 2, and 3

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    Physical Science Chapter 1 Sections 1, 2, and 3 Physical Science Chapter 1 Sections 1, 2, and 3 Presentation Transcript

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      • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource.
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      How to Use This Presentation
    • Resources Chapter Presentation Image Bank Math Focus Bellringers Standards Assessment Visual Concepts
    • Table of Contents
      • Section 1 Science and Scientists
      • Section 2 Scientific Methods
      • Section 3 Safety in Science
      Chapter 1 The Nature of Physical Science
    • Bellringer
      • Suppose that you are cooking a bag of popcorn in the microwave. After a couple of minutes of cooking, however, the popcorn still hasn’t popped. Why did this happen? What steps could you take to help locate the problem?
      • Write your answers in your Science Journal.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • What You Will Learn
      • Methods of scientific investigation include research, observation, and experimentation.
      • The work of scientists benefits society in a number of ways.
      • Scientists work in all kinds of jobs.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Starting with a Question
      • Science is the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested.
      • Asking a question is often the first step in the process of gathering knowledge.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Investigation: The Search for Answers
      • Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations.
      • Three methods of investigation are research, observation, and experimentation.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Applying the Answers
      • The answers gained from scientific investigations can be applied in many areas of our lives.
      • Science helps save lives by making automobiles safer.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Applying the Answers , continued
      • Science helps save resources by inventing ways to recycle more materials.
      • Science helps protect the environment by finding ways to reduce the use of harmful chemicals.
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Scientists Everywhere
      • Any person who asks questions and investigates how things work could be called a scientist. Scientists work in many different places.
      • Some examples of jobs that use science are a meteorologist , a geochemist , an ecologist , a volcanologist , and a science illustrator .
      Section 1 Science and Scientists Chapter 1
    • Physics The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Bellringer
      • List several possible ways that a boat can be propelled forward. Then, describe a way to test which of these methods of propulsion is the most efficient.
      • Write your answers in your Science Journal.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • What You Will Learn
      • Scientific methods are based on six steps, which may be followed in different ways based on the kind of question being asked.
      • Scientific investigations begin with a question and proceed by forming a hypothesis and then testing it.
      • Scientists use a variety of methods to analyze and report their data.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • What Are Scientific Methods?
      • Scientific methods are a series of steps followed to solve problems.
      • The six steps used in scientific methods are asking a question, forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, analyzing the results, drawing conclusions, and communicating results.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • What Are Scientific Methods? , continued
      • Scientists may use all of the steps or some of the steps during an investigation. They may even repeat some of the steps or do the steps in a different order.
      • How scientists choose to use the steps depends on what works best to answer their question.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Scientific Methods The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Asking a Question
      • Asking a question is often the first step in using scientific methods.
      • Asking a question usually results from making many observations.
      • Observation is the process of obtaining information by using the senses.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Forming a Hypothesis
      • A hypothesis is a testable explanation or answer to a question.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Hypothesis The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Testing the Hypothesis
      • After scientists form a hypothesis, they usually test the hypothesis to find out if it is a reasonable answer to their question.
      • A controlled experiment compares the results from a control group with the results from experimental groups. A controlled experiment is a good way to test a hypothesis.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Testing the Hypothesis , continued
      • The factors that are kept the same between the groups are called controlled parameters.
      • The one factor that changes between the groups is called a variable parameter.
      • Data are any pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Analyzing the Results
      • After scientists test a hypothesis by performing an experiment, they usually analyze their results.
      • Analyzing results by using tables and graphs helps scientists understand relationships between the data.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Analyzing the Results , continued
      • Analyzing data from repeated tests can help scientists determine if their data are accurate and reproducible.
      • Data are reproducible when you get similar data from many tests.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Drawing Conclusions
      • After scientists analyze their results, they usually draw conclusions about whether their hypothesis was supported.
      • Valid conclusions can only be obtained with reproducible data.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Drawing Conclusions , continued
      • Data are considered reproducible when scientists get similar data from many repeated tests.
      • Reproducible data helps scientists make sure that the results of their experiment were not an accident.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Communicating Results
      • After drawing conclusions, scientists often communicate their results.
      • When scientists communicate their results, it allows others to continue the investigation.
      • Results can be communicated through scientific papers, presentations, and the Internet.
      Section 2 Scientific Methods Chapter 1
    • Bellringer
      • Read the Safety First! section on pages [xxvi-xxix]. Then, make a two-column table. In the first column, list the types of clothing that you should always wear in the lab. In the second column, list the types of clothing that you should never wear in the lab. Create this table in your Science Journal. Refer to this table when planning what to wear to school on days that you might be working in the lab.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • What You Will Learn
      • You can take responsibility for your own safety in the laboratory.
      • Following directions, taking safety precautions, and following proper cleanup procedures help keep you safe.
      • If an accident happens in the laboratory, first make sure that you are safe and then tell your teacher about the accident.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Keeping Yourself Safe
      • Take responsibility for your own safety when working in a science lab.
      • Avoid accidents by being aware of what is going on around you.
      • Report all accidents, no matter how minor they may seem, to the teacher.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Elements of Safety
      • Recognize and understand the safety symbols that scientists use for particular dangers involved in performing an experiment.
      • Always read directions before beginning a lab activity and then follow the directions exactly.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Elements of Safety , continued
      • Neatness is important when conducting scientific investigations.
      • Clear the work area of unnecessary objects and clean up any spills as soon as they happen.
      • Use all of the safety equipment needed to perform an experiment.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Elements of Safety , continued
      • Goggles, gloves, and aprons are examples of protective safety equipment.
      • Clean the work area after finishing an experiment and wash your hands thoroughly.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
    • Responding to Accidents
      • Learning to cope with accidents is one way to take responsibility for your safety.
      • Make sure that you can locate and use the first-aid supplies and special safety equipment in your science lab.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Responding to Accidents , continued
      • If an accident occurs, first make sure that you are safe. Then, tell your teacher about the accident.
      • If an injury requires immediate attention, the teacher may perform first aid.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Responding to Accidents , continued
      • First aid is emergency medical care for someone who has been hurt or who is sick.
      • Do not perform first aid unless you know the proper first-aid procedures that must be followed for the type of accidental injury that has occurred.
      Section 3 Safety in Science Chapter 1
    • Concept Map Chapter 1 The Nature of Physical Science Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. hypotheses conclusions observations scientists results scientific methods experiments
    • The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1 Concept Map
    • The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1 Concept Map
    • End of Chapter 1 Show The Nature of Physical Science Chapter 1
      • 1. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word concept?
        • A. plan
        • B. question
        • C. idea
        • D. solution
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 1. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to the word concept?
        • A. plan
        • B. question
        • C. idea
        • D. solution
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 2. Which of the following is the plural form of the word hypothesis ?
        • A. hypothesis
        • B. hypothesises
        • C. hypotheses
        • D. hypothesa
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 2. Which of the following is the plural form of the word hypothesis ?
        • A. hypothesis
        • B. hypothesises
        • C. hypotheses
        • D. hypothesa
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 3. Which of the following words best completes this sentence: “Scientists must always be certain of the _____ of their data.”?
        • A. accurate
        • B. accuracy
        • C. accurately
        • D. accurateness
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 3. Which of the following words best completes this sentence: “Scientists must always be certain of the _____ of their data.”?
        • A. accurate
        • B. accuracy
        • C. accurately
        • D. accurateness
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 4. Which of the following words means “a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis”?
        • A. variable
        • B. control
        • C. data
        • D. prediction
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 4. Which of the following words means “a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis”?
        • A. variable
        • B. control
        • C. data
        • D. prediction
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 5. In the sentence “Scientists include both constant and changing parameters in their experiments,” what does the word parameter mean?
        • A. limit or boundary
        • B. value used to define something
        • C. environment or surroundings
        • D. procedure in an investigation
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 5. In the sentence “Scientists include both constant and changing parameters in their experiments,” what does the word parameter mean?
        • A. limit or boundary
        • B. value used to define something
        • C. environment or surroundings
        • D. procedure in an investigation
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 6. Which of the following steps might come first in a scientific investigation?
        • A. applying results
        • B. making careful observations
        • C. forming a hypothesis
        • D. conducting an experiment
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 6. Which of the following steps might come first in a scientific investigation?
        • A. applying results
        • B. making careful observations
        • C. forming a hypothesis
        • D. conducting an experiment
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • Use the graph below to answer the next question.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 7. The above graph shows data from an experiment on a liquid. Which of the following questions might have led a scientist to conduct this experiment?
        • A. How does the boiling point of this liquid compare to that of other liquids?
        • B. Why does a liquid’s boiling point decrease as pressure increases?
        • C. How does the pressure applied to a liquid affect its temperature?
        • D. How does the boiling point of this liquid change as pressure increases?
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 7. The above graph shows data from an experiment on a liquid. Which of the following questions might have led a scientist to conduct this experiment?
        • A. How does the boiling point of this liquid compare to that of other liquids?
        • B. Why does a liquid’s boiling point decrease as pressure increases?
        • C. How does the pressure applied to a liquid affect its temperature?
        • D. How does the boiling point of this liquid change as pressure increases?
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 8. What is the first step you should take if someone is cut with broken glass during an experiment?
        • A. Apply first aid.
        • B. Clean up the glass.
        • C. Complete the experiment.
        • D. Make sure you are safe.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 8. What is the first step you should take if someone is cut with broken glass during an experiment?
        • A. Apply first aid.
        • B. Clean up the glass.
        • C. Complete the experiment.
        • D. Make sure you are safe.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 9. Which of the following might be part of a successful scientific investigation?
        • A. conducting an experiment that does not produce reproducible results
        • B. asking a question that cannot be answered by science
        • C. drawing conclusions that are not based on the results
        • D. producing results that do not support a hypothesis
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 9. Which of the following might be part of a successful scientific investigation?
        • A. conducting an experiment that does not produce reproducible results
        • B. asking a question that cannot be answered by science
        • C. drawing conclusions that are not based on the results
        • D. producing results that do not support a hypothesis
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 10. A scientist wants to test the ability of different detergents to clean a shirt. Which of the following variables and controls will the scientist use in the experiment?
        • A. The detergents and type of washing machines are variables, while the shirt material is controlled.
        • B. The shirt material and type of washing machines are variables, while the detergent is controlled.
        • C. The type of washing machine is variable, while the shirt material and detergent are controlled.
        • D. The detergent is variable, while the type of washing machine and shirt material are controlled.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 10. A scientist wants to test the ability of different detergents to clean a shirt. Which of the following variables and controls will the scientist use in the experiment?
        • A. The detergents and type of washing machines are variables, while the shirt material is controlled.
        • B. The shirt material and type of washing machines are variables, while the detergent is controlled.
        • C. The type of washing machine is variable, while the shirt material and detergent are controlled.
        • D. The detergent is variable, while the type of washing machine and shirt material are controlled.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 11. Which of the following should be avoided in the area where an experiment is taking place?
        • A. tying long hair back in a ponytail
        • B. keeping information from previous experiments on the work area
        • C. wearing safety goggles that fit snugly over one’s eyes
        • D. wearing heat-resistant gloves if an open flame is used
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 11. Which of the following should be avoided in the area where an experiment is taking place?
        • A. tying long hair back in a ponytail
        • B. keeping information from previous experiments on the work area
        • C. wearing safety goggles that fit snugly over one’s eyes
        • D. wearing heat-resistant gloves if an open flame is used
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 12. What tools might a scientist use for an experiment about the mass of objects?
        • A. graduated cylinder
        • B. thermometer
        • C. balance
        • D. meterstick
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 12. What tools might a scientist use for an experiment about the mass of objects?
        • A. graduated cylinder
        • B. thermometer
        • C. balance
        • D. meterstick
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 13. What observations might people have used long ago to disprove the theory that the sun and planets revolve around Earth?
        • A. Other planets appear to revolve around the sun.
        • B. The sun appears to rise in the morning and set at night.
        • C. Earth is the most important place in the universe.
        • D. The sun provides energy to Earth.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 13. What observations might people have used long ago to disprove the theory that the sun and planets revolve around Earth?
        • A. Other planets appear to revolve around the sun.
        • B. The sun appears to rise in the morning and set at night.
        • C. Earth is the most important place in the universe.
        • D. The sun provides energy to Earth.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • Use the table below to answer the next question.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 14. An experiment was conducted in which a group of rabbits were fed carrots and food pellets every two hours. The results of this experiment are shown in the table above. Which of the following conclusions might a scientist draw from these observations?
        • A. Rabbits prefer food pellets to carrots.
        • B. Rabbits eat mostly in the morning and evening.
        • C. Rabbits eat a wide range of food.
        • D. Rabbits will not eat at 3 p.m.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
      • 14. An experiment was conducted in which a group of rabbits were fed carrots and food pellets every two hours. The results of this experiment are shown in the table above. Which of the following conclusions might a scientist draw from these observations?
        • A. Rabbits prefer food pellets to carrots.
        • B. Rabbits eat mostly in the morning and evening.
        • C. Rabbits eat a wide range of food.
        • D. Rabbits will not eat at 3 p.m.
      Chapter 1 Standards Assessment
    • Chapter 1