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  1. 1. <ul><li>Get out materials for class ( sharpen pencils ). </li></ul><ul><li>Hand in homework / due assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin Bell Work. </li></ul>First Name Last Name Date: Month / Day / Year Class Period Name of Assignment <ul><ul><li>How to head paper : </li></ul></ul>Class
  2. 2. Class Rules <ul><li>Be respectful to others (in language and actions). </li></ul><ul><li>Raise hand to speak unless instructed otherwise. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones must be on ‘ silent ’ and will not be used during class. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at your desk during lectures unless given permission to get up. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have pass signed by me to leave classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>No gum in class or lab . </li></ul><ul><li>No food or drink in the lab area due to safety issues . </li></ul><ul><li>Drinks in classroom must have a cover / cap. </li></ul><ul><li>When done with class work/test/quizzes you may read personal book, text book, draw, or work on other school work. </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 players (iPods, Zune…) will not be used in the classroom or lab area. </li></ul><ul><li>Tardiness is not acceptable. </li></ul><ul><li>Must come get make-up work the next day ( your responsibility ). </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Safety rules </li></ul><ul><li>Review emergency equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Safety symbols in book. </li></ul>Class Notes
  4. 4. a
  5. 6. Class Notes
  6. 7. <ul><li>What is biology? </li></ul><ul><li>Living things interact with their environment and depend upon other living (biotic) & nonliving (abiotic) things to aid their survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of Science </li></ul>Chapter . Section 1.1 Page that section begins on. Pg. 3 Natural Science Physical Science Earth & Space Science Life Science (Biology) Physics Chemistry Geology Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Botany Zoology Ecology Genetics Class Notes
  7. 8. Pg. 7 1.2 Scientific Method Observation Question Hypothesis Experiment Analyze/Draw conclusions Hypothesis Is supported Test hypothesis with further experiments Hypothesis Is NOT supported Revise hypothesis Theory Class Notes
  8. 9. <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Defined : An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal : To solve a problem or to better understand an observed event. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for : Provides a useful strategy for solving problems. </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  9. 10. <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><li>Make an observation. ( Info obtained through senses ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a question. ( How does speed affect how wet you get when you are caught in rain ) </li></ul><ul><li>Form a hypothesis – a proposed answer to your question. ( The faster your speed, the drier you will stay ) </li></ul><ul><li>Test your hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li> ♧ manipulated (independent) variable ( Speed ) </li></ul><ul><li> ♧ responding (dependent) variable ( amount of water you accumulate ) </li></ul><ul><li> ♧ controlled experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze data then draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>If hypothesis is supported with further experiments, then develop a theory. </li></ul>Pg. 11 1.2 Pg. 17 Class Notes
  10. 11. Complete the Frayer Diagram Scientific Method Define Goal Parts in order Why is it used Make Observations An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information. To solve a problem or to better understand an observed event. Ask a question, Develop a hypothesis, Test hypothesis Analyze data & draw conclusions ( test/revise ), Develop theory Provides a useful strategy for solving problems. 1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  11. 12. <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is based on an abundance of evidence & developed once a hypothesis has been supported in repeated experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that a theory is supported by experimental data does not mean that the theory is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>They are never proved, only become stronger if the facts continue to support them. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are judged by how they fit with other theories, the range of observations they explain, and how well they explain observations. </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  12. 13. <ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><li>A statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature is a scientific law. </li></ul><ul><li>They describe an observed pattern in nature without attempting to explain it. The explanation of such a pattern is provided by a scientific theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories are well supported explanations and laws are well supported descriptions. </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  13. 14. <ul><li>Empirical Evidence - A cumulative body of observations. </li></ul><ul><li>The word empirical denotes information gained by means of   observation  or experiments. Empirical data is data  produced by an experiment or observation. </li></ul><ul><li>A central concept in modern science and the  scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical , or empirically based that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Competing interpretations of empirical evidence can lead to alternative explanations or support existing explanations. </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  14. 15. <ul><li>Models </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific models make it easier to understand things that might be too difficult to observe directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Models are a visual or mathematical representation of an object or process. </li></ul><ul><li>Models are typically used when it is either impossible or impractical to create experimental conditions in which scientists can directly measure outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Street Map, Globe </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  15. 16. Class Notes <ul><li>Answer these questions in pairs ( each person writes on own paper ) </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between a hypothesis, scientific theory, and scientific law? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an example of a scientific model? </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11
  16. 17. <ul><li>Scientists need to be creative as they pose new questions, design investigations and develop explanations. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists around the world have replicated similar investigations/experiments and obtained similar results. (checks & balances) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use critical and logical thinking, open-mindedness, objectivity and skepticism as they examine a scientific claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists accept the notion that scientific knowledge is always open to improvement and can never be declared absolutely certain. </li></ul>Class Notes
  17. 18. <ul><li>Scientific knowledge is subject to modifications as new information challenges prevailing theories and as a new theory leads to looking at old observations in a new way. </li></ul><ul><li>The varied backgrounds, talents, goals and interests of scientists influence the development of scientific knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Science influences society through its knowledge and world view. </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas in science are limited by the context in which they are conceived; are often rejected by the scientific establishment; sometimes spring from unexpected findings; and usually grow slowly, through contributions from many investigators. </li></ul>Class Notes
  18. 19. <ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Example, &quot;Upon magnification, the painted lady eggs appear bluish and barrel-shaped.&quot; Observations are direct enough that most would make the same observation in the same situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences </li></ul><ul><li>When we bring our past experience into making a judgment based on an observation , it is an inference. For example, &quot;The caterpillar appears as if it is about to form its chrysalis&quot; is an inference, because you are interpreting observations according to knowledge from past experience . </li></ul>1.2 Pg. 11 Class Notes
  19. 20. <ul><li>Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring is the process of making an inference, an interpretation based on observations and prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>An incorrect inference is known as a  fallacy . </li></ul><ul><li>Inference vs. Prediction : predicting is about the future, whereas inferring is about the present </li></ul>Class Notes
  20. 21. Class Notes a
  21. 22. In pairs, fill out the chart. Pg. 7 1.2 Class Notes
  22. 23. Class Notes <ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Science is a limited discipline that studies only naturally occurring events, while offering natural explanations for the phenomenon under study. The data must be consistent, observable, predictable, and testable, while any conclusions or theories must be tentative. </li></ul>Pg. 7 1.2
  23. 24. Class Notes <ul><li>Non-Science </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Science Defined: Non-science may be defined as an area of knowledge which does not meet the criteria of science. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-science topic areas may be very logical and based on good reasoning, but simply do not fall within the realm of science. They would include any belief system, e.g., philosophy, personal opinions or attitudes, a sense of esthetics, or ethics. </li></ul>Pg. 7 1.2
  24. 25. Class Notes <ul><li>Pseudoscience </li></ul><ul><li>False science (pseudoscience) may be defined as a non-science which is portrayed and advertised as a legitimate science by its followers and supporters. Good examples of a pseudoscience would include  reflexology, applied kinesthetic, astrology, and extrasensory perception (ESP). </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions may be based on faulty logic or lack substantial support from valid scientific data. Pseudoscience claims often lack the ability to be supported or refuted, investigations may lack unbiased peer review. </li></ul>1.2
  25. 26. <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Can not be broken down into simpler </li></ul><ul><li>chemical substances. </li></ul>6.1 Pg. 141 Gold Calcium Class Notes
  26. 27. <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest particles of an element that has the characteristics of that element. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic building blocks of all matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Electron (e-) energy levels </li></ul><ul><li>1 st : 2 e- </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : 8 e- </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd : 18e- </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms contain equal numbers </li></ul><ul><li>of electrons & protons. This </li></ul><ul><li>means they have no net charge. </li></ul>Pg. 141 6.1 Class Notes
  27. 28. Pg. 141 6.1 Atoms Electron energy levels (e- cloud) & periodic table Hydrogen Copper Gold Class Notes
  28. 29. a Activity Class Notes
  29. 30. Class Notes 6.2 Pg. 152 Na Sodium
  30. 31. Class Notes 6 12.011 6 6 C -> Pg. 141 6.1 <ul><li>Answer the following questions about </li></ul><ul><li>carbon in pairs: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the atomic number? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the atomic mass? </li></ul><ul><li>How many electrons does </li></ul><ul><li>this element have? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How many protons does </li></ul><ul><li>this element have? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is the elements’ </li></ul><ul><li>symbol? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Draw the element with it’s </li></ul><ul><li>electron energy levels. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Pg. 141 6.1 Isotopes  are variants of atoms of a particular chemical element, which have differing numbers of neutrons. Atoms of a particular element by definition must contain the same number of protons but may have a distinct number of neutrons which differs from atom to atom, without changing the designation of the atom as a particular element. A compound is a substance that is composed of atoms two or more different element that are chemically combined. Table salt (NaCl) is a compound . It is composed of sodium and chlorine. Pg 144 Class Notes
  32. 33. Pg. 141 6.1 Bonds Covalent bond Ionic bonds Covalent bond : the force that holds the two atoms sharing electrons. ( example below: water ) Molecule : a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. (H2O) Ion : a charged particle made of atoms. Ionic bond : the attractive force between two ions of opposite charge. Class Notes
  33. 34. Pg. 141 6.1 <ul><li>Chemical Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Occur when bonds are formed or broken, causing substances to recombine into different substances. </li></ul><ul><li>This happens inside our cells. </li></ul><ul><li>All the chemical reactions (rxns) that occur within an organism are call the organism’s metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Substances that undergo chemical reactions are called reactants, and substances formed by the chemical rxns are called products. </li></ul>A coefficient is a number placed in front of a term in a chemical equation to indicate how many molecules (or atoms) take part in the reaction. Class Notes
  34. 35. <ul><li>Mixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous Mixtures: Parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Example - Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Homogeneous mixture: Substances that are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – serving spoon is made of stainless steel ( a mixture of iron, chromium, and nickel ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solution : the mixture formed when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: spoonful of sugar in glass of hot water (stirred) </li></ul></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 141 6.1
  35. 36. Class Notes a Pg. 141 6.1 Sleet refers to two distinct forms of precipitation.
  36. 37. Pg. 141 6.1 acids/bases/pH pH: a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. A solution is neutral if its’ pH = 7. Acid: any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water. (ex.: hydrochloric acid) pH is below 7. Base: any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water. pH is above 7. Class Notes
  37. 38. Pg. 141 6.1 Class Notes
  38. 39. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Most life processes can occur only when molecules and ions are free to move and collide with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves to transport materials in organisms . ( blood, plant sap ) </li></ul><ul><li>Polarity: when atoms form covalent bonds, they do not share the electrons equally. </li></ul><ul><li>Polar water molecules attract ions as well as other polar molecules. B/c of this, water can dissolve many ionic compounds ( salt ) and many other polar molecules ( sugar ). </li></ul>Pg. 152 6.2 Class Notes
  39. 40. <ul><li>Which will diffuse more quickly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrated orange juice in cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrated orange juice in warm water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water is a ___________molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Water can creep up thin tubes in ______________. </li></ul>Pg. 141 6.1 polar capillary action Class Notes
  40. 41. Pg. 152 6.2 Water <ul><li>Water molecules attract other water molecules. The positively charged hydrogen atoms of one water molecule attract the negatively water molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillary action: water </li></ul><ul><li>having the unique property </li></ul><ul><li>of being able to creep up </li></ul><ul><li>thin tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>Water requires more heat to increase its temperature than most liquids because water resists changes in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Water loses a lot of heat when it cools. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is like an insulator that helps maintain a steady environment when conditions fluctuate. </li></ul>Class Notes
  41. 42. <ul><li>Water expands when it freezes , which means ice is less dense than liquid water ( that’s why it floats ). </li></ul><ul><li>Water expands as it freezes inside the cracks of rocks. As it expands, it often breaks apart the rocks which over long periods of time helps form soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Water carries substance in living systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion : the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration in order to achieve dynamic equilibrium . </li></ul><ul><li>3 key factors that affect the rate of diffusion: concentration, temperature, and pressure. </li></ul>Pg. 152 6.2 Class Notes
  42. 43. Class Notes a 6.2 Pg. 152 Concentration gradient : the difference in concentration of a substance across space.
  43. 44. Pg. 141 6.1 <ul><li>Water _______ when it freezes. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion is the net _________ of particles from an area of _______concentration to an area of ______ concentration in order to achieve dynamic _________. </li></ul><ul><li>What are 3 key factors that affect the rate of diffusion? </li></ul><ul><li> concentration, temperature, and pressure </li></ul>expands movement higher lower equilibrium Class Notes
  44. 45. <ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomolecules – large organic compounds ( made of many carbon atoms ) Example: proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells build biomolecules by bonding small molecules together to form chains called polymers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer is a large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul></ul></ul>Plastic 2:08 6.3 Pg. 157 Class Notes
  45. 46. <ul><li>Carbohydrate – a biomolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: simple sugar (monosaccharide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest: polysaccharides (starch) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids – large biomolecules that are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats, oils, waxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein – a large, complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acids – building blocks of proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul>Class Notes 6.3 Pg. 157
  46. 47. 6 <ul><li>Nucleic Acid – a complex compound that stores cellular information in the form of a code. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul></ul>Class Notes 6.3 Pg. 157
  47. 48. <ul><li>Long-term energy storage, insulation, protective coatings </li></ul><ul><li>In condensation, one monomer loses an H+ ion and another loses an OH- to form water. A covalent bond forms between the monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>A disaccharide is made of two simple sugars called monosaccharaides. </li></ul><ul><li>Like other nucleic acids, DNA is composed of smaller nucleotides consisting of a phosphate group, a simple sugar, and a nitrogenous base. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes; protein; nucleic acids; nucleotides </li></ul>Pg. 141 6.1 Do problems 1 – 5 in the section assessment on page 163. 5th Class Notes
  48. 49. Class Notes <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke: observed small geometric shapes in cork & named them cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden: observed cells in plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Theodor Schwann: observed cells in animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are composed of one or more cells </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is the basic unit of organization within an organism </li></ul><ul><li>All cells come from preexisting cells </li></ul>7.1 Pg. 171
  49. 50. Class Notes <ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells contain small, specialized structures called organelles . Each organelle has a specific function in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes: do not have membrane-bound organelles & most are unicellular. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes: cells that contain membrane-bound organelles & most are multicellular. </li></ul>7.1 Pg. 171 6th 3 cell types
  50. 51. E Class Notes Pg. 171 7.1
  51. 52. <ul><li>Cell Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Write on your own paper! </li></ul><ul><li>You are given an index card with an organelle name on it. </li></ul><ul><li>Write on your own paper , what type of cell your organelle is in ( plant/animal ), it’s function, where it is located, and draw what it looks like. </li></ul><ul><li>Then wait for me to give you further instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Create your cell with your classmates. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There should be an animal cell , and a plant cell . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If your organelle can be either an animal OR a plant cell, then there should be at least one in EACH cell/group. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now take turns reading what your organelle is, what it’s function is, where it is located, and what it looks like. ( as classmates are explaining their organelle, write it down on YOUR paper so you have a complete set!) </li></ul></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 171 7.1
  52. 53. <ul><li>Plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Selective permeability: allows some molecules pass through, but keeping others out. </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Polarity: 2 tails are non-polar, phosphate group head is polar </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier is created: stops water-soluble molecules ( makes it hard for them to move through ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid mosaic model </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol: helps stabilize phospholipids by preventing their tails from sticking together. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins (transport): move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane. </li></ul>Membrane Phospholipid bilayer Pg. 175 7.2 Class Notes
  53. 54. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall – support/protection ( in plant cell ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus: manages/controls cellular functions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin : strands of DNA; the master set of directions for making proteins is contained here. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus: makes ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes: sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of DNA. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm: site of numerous chemical reactions & suspends the cell’s organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>ER: site of cellular chemical reactions (rxns) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER : ER that ribosomes are attached to – carries out function of protein synthesis. </li></ul></ul>Animal cell Class Notes Pg. 179 7.3
  54. 55. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER: involved in biochemical activities including the production and storage of lipids. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus: modifies proteins ( sorts proteins into packages and packs them into membrane-bound structures called vesicles to be sent off ). </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles : a sac used to temporarily store food, enzymes, and other materials needed for the cell. ( typically in a plant cell ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosomes : contain digestive enzymes – digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. ( in animals cells ) </li></ul>Class Notes Pg. 179 7.3
  55. 56. <ul><li>Eukaryotic Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts : capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy . ( in plants only ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastids : group of plant organelles used to store starches, lipids, or pigments. (including chloroplasts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll – traps light energy and gives leaves and stems their green color. (contained in chloroplasts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria: transform energy for the cell . (powerhouse) </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton: support structure/protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules: thin, hollow cylinders made of protein. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments: smaller, solid protein fibers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centrioles : made up of microtubules, and play an important role in cell division. ( in animal cells ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia & flagella: aid the cell in locomotion or feeding. </li></ul>Chloroplasts Class Notes Pg. 179 7.3
  56. 57. Match words to definition: Pg. 141 6.1 c. b. a. d. Class Notes
  57. 58. <ul><li>Cellular Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis: the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration gradient : unequal distribution of particles. ( one factor that controls osmosis ) </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic solution: the concentration of dissolved substances in the solution is the same as the concentration of dissolved substances inside the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotonic solution : the concentration of dissolved substances is lower in the solution outside the cell than the concentration inside the cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is more water outside the cell than inside. </li></ul></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 195 8.1
  58. 59. <ul><li>Hypertonic solution: the concentration of dissolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell. ( causes water to flow out ) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Transport : movement of particles across cell membranes b diffusion or osmosis; the cell uses no energy to move particles across the membrane . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrier proteins with concentration gradient </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Passive & Active transport Class Notes Pg. 195 8.1
  59. 60. <ul><li>Active transport : energy expending process by which cells transport materials across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carrier proteins against concentration gradient </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis: active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell’s plasma membrane and releases the content inside of the cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis: active transport process by which materials are secreted or expelled from a cell. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 195 8.1
  60. 61. How do animal cells and plant cells react differently in a hypotonic solution? <ul><li>Animal cell : the extra water may cause the plasma membrane to burst. Plant cell : the plasma membrane pushes against the cell wall, providing added support. </li></ul>Class Notes Pg. 201 8.2
  61. 62. <ul><li>Cell size limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion: efficient process over short distances, it becomes slow and inefficient as the distances become larger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA limits cell size: in larger cells where an increased amount of cytoplasm requires increased supplies of enzymes, more than one nucleus is present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface area-to-volume ratio: volume faster than its surface area. </li></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 201 8.2
  62. 63. <ul><ul><li>Chromosomes: the carriers of the genetic material that is copied and passed from generation to generation of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Cycle : the sequence of growth and division of a cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interphase : cell grows in size and carries on metabolism ( busiest phase of the cell cycle ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes are duplicated in preparation for the period of division. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 .) rapid growth & metabolic activity; 2 .) DNA synthesis & replication; 3 .) centrioles replicate & cell prepares for division. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>cell cycle Class Notes Pg. 201 8.2
  63. 64. <ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis : process by which 2 daughter cells are formed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Telophase </li></ul>Mitosis Class Notes Pg. 201 8.2
  64. 65. Cytokinesis – cell’s cytoplasm divides Mitosis vs Meiosis Class Notes Pg. 201 8.2
  65. 66. <ul><li>Control of the cell cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins ( cyclin ) & enzymes : interactions controls the cell cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Gene: segment of DNA that controls the production of a protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer: malignant growth resulting from uncontrolled cell division. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result of changes in one or more of the genes that produce substances that are involved in controlling the cell cycle. ( something prompts the damaged genes into action ) </li></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 211 8.3
  66. 67. <ul><ul><li>Tumors deprive normal cells of nutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors: cigarette smoke, air & water pollution, UV radiation from sun… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cancer prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets low in fat & high in fiber content can reduce the risk of many kinds of cancer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins & minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily exercise </li></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 211 8.3
  67. 68. <ul><li>Cell Energy </li></ul><ul><li>ATP: energy-storing molecule in cells; energy stored in the molecule’s chemical bonds and can be used quickly and easily by cells. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP molecule formed from the breaking off of a phosphate group fro ATP; results in a release of energy that is used for biological reactions (rxns). </li></ul><ul><li>Formation/breakdown recycling activity </li></ul><ul><li>Cells use energy in making new molecules, and to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul>Class Notes Pg. 221 9.1
  68. 69. <ul><li>Photosynthesis : process by which autotrophs trap energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use this energy to convert CO 2 and H 2 O into simple sugars. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light–dependent rxns occur at the thylakoid membrane </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Light–independent rxns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These reactions occur in the stroma , the fluid-filled area of a chloroplasts outside of the thylakoid membranes. These reactions take the light-dependent reactions and perform further chemical processes on them . There are three phases to the light-independent reactions, collectively called the Calvin Cycle. </li></ul></ul>Photosynthesis Calvin cycle Class Notes Pg. 225 9.2
  69. 70. <ul><li>Cellular Respiration: the process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis : a series of chemical rxns in the cytoplasm of a cell that break down glucose into molecules of pyruvic acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citric Acid Cycle ( Krebs Cycle ) : series of chemical rxns that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes e- carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the e- transport chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron transport chain : The e- are passed from protein to protein within the membrane, slowly releasing their energy in steps. </li></ul></ul>Krebs cycle (citric acid) Class Notes Pg. 231 9.3
  70. 71. <ul><ul><li>Fermentation: provides a means to continue producing ATP when oxygen is not available. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic acid fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholic fermentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration </li></ul>Class Notes Pg. 231 9.3
  71. 72. <ul><li>Genetics : branch of biology that studies heredity. </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity : the passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits : the characteristics that are inherited. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel : the father of modern genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>His study showed that one in four pea plants had purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments led him to make two generalizations, the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment , which later became known as Mendel's Laws of Inheritance . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gametes, Fertilization, Zygote, Pollination </li></ul></ul>Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  72. 73. <ul><li>Mendel’s Monohybrid Crosses </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid : the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait ( such as tall and short height ) </li></ul><ul><li>P stands for “parent” </li></ul><ul><li>( P 1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st generation: ( F 1 ) </li></ul><ul><li>F = filial ( son or daughter ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd generation: ( F 2 ) </li></ul>( P 1 ) ( F 1 ) ( F 1 ) ( F 2 ) Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  73. 74. Phenotype: the way an organism looks & behaves. Genotype: combination of genes in an organism. Homozygous ( for a trait ) : if its 2 alleles for the trait are the same (TT or tt) Heterozygous ( for a trait ): if its 2 alleles for the trait differ from each other. (Tt) Punnett Square: way of finding the expected proportions of possible genotypes in the offspring of a cross. Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  74. 75. E Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  75. 76. Dihybrid Crosses Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  76. 77. E Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  77. 78. E Class Notes Pg. 253 10.1
  78. 79. Class Notes <ul><li>Work in pairs : pg. 186 </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone will be assigned an organelle. </li></ul><ul><li>Write on the lined portion of your index card what the function of your organelle is and where it is located ( in cytoplasm, on ER…) </li></ul><ul><li>Then on the non-lined side of index card, draw what your organelle looks like. </li></ul><ul><li>You must get with other organelles and create a cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Once you have created your cell, take turns teaching each other. Read your cards one-by-one in your groups. </li></ul>7.1 Pg. 171
  79. 80. Bell Work <ul><li>Define: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manipulated variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responding variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>controlled experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you do if the data does not support your hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an observation, inference, and empirical evidence? ( hint : use notes from last class ) </li></ul>
  80. 81. Bell Work <ul><li>Define the following: </li></ul><ul><li>accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>inferring </li></ul><ul><li>empirical evidence </li></ul><ul><li>precision </li></ul>
  81. 82. <ul><li>Welcome to Biology I with Mrs. Monies </li></ul><ul><li>Begin filling out the paper work. </li></ul>Bell Work
  82. 83. Class Schedule <ul><li>Fill out as much of paper work as you can, then take it home for your parents to sign. Please keep it in your 3 ring binder. </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Code of Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Rules & Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-test ( outcome will not affect your grade ) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Science </li></ul>