Chapter 1 – Intro to Chemistry By Kendon Smith – Columbia Central HS – Brooklyn, MI
Chapter 1 Notes: Introduction to ChemistryI. What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. Matter = Anything that has mass and occupies space. Examples of Matter? Air, Water, A desk, YOU! Examples of Non-matter? Heat, Light, Sound, Energy
II. Five Major Branches of Chemistry1. Organic Chemistry – study of essentially all chemicals containing carbon2. Inorganic Chemistry – study of chemicals, in general, that do NOT contain carbon3. Biochemistry – study of chemical processes that occur in living things4. Analytical chemistry – are of study that focuses on the composition of matter.
II. Five Major Branches of Chemistry5. Physical Chemistry – deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change. * Investigates underlying scientific principles behind changes. Chemical change = chemical reaction!
II. Pure and Applied Chemistry1. Pure Chemistry – pursuing of knowledge simply for the sake of knowing it or to satisfy man’s natural curiosity about the world.2. Applied Chemistry – research that is directed toward a goal or application in order to solve a problem.3. Technology – the means by which society provides its members with the things they need or desire.
III. Why study Chemistry?1. In order to explain the natural world.2. To help you prepare for a career.3. To become an informed citizen.
IV. Chemistry Far and Wide1. Materials – Chemists design materials to fit specific needs in the world. a. Macroscopic – the world in which objects are large enough to see. b. Microscopic – the world in which objects can only be seen under magnification2. Energy – Chemists play an essential role in finding ways to conserve, produce, and store energy.
IV. Chemistry Far and Wide3. Medicine – Chemistry supplies the medicines, materials, and technology that doctors use to treat their patients. - Biotechnology – applies science to produce biological products and processes
IV. Chemistry Far and Wide1. Agriculture – Chemists help develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops. i. Soil quality testing to improve soil ii. Adding fertilizers to the soil iii. Developing herbicides to prevent weeds iv. Developing insecticides to kill pests v. Developing other chemicals to prevent plant diseases vi. Biochemists modify the genes of plants
IV. Chemistry Far and Wide5. The Environment – Chemists identify pollutants and prevent pollution
V. The Scientific MethodDef – A logical, systematic approach to solving problems.1. Problem – a question to be answered, usually stated as a question.2. Observations – Using your senses to obtain information about the problem.3. Hypothesis – A proposed explanation for an observation.
V. The Scientific Method4. Experiment – A procedure used to test your hypothesis. a. Manipulated or independent variable – a variable you change. b. Responding or dependent variable – a variable you observe.
V. The Scientific Method1. Conclusion – Analyze experimental results to form theories or laws. a. Theory – a well tested explanation for a set of observations. - Tries to explain why, but can never be proven b. Law – a concise statement that summarizes results of many observations. - A law is simply a statement of fact that does not try to explain.
End of Chapter 1 Read and study the rest of the chapter on your own for the test. Pay attention to vocabulary! Start off the year with a good testgrade! Don’t underestimate this test!