Galileo Galilei

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Galileo Galilei

  1. 1. Galileo Galilei<br />MODERN AGE OF ASTRONOMY<br />
  2. 2. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />Galileo<br />Italian physicist and astronomer<br />Birth: February 15, 1564<br />Death: January 8, 1642<br /> Place of Birth: Pisa, Italy<br />
  3. 3. Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Giusto Sustermans<br />
  4. 4. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />Known for:<br /> Making a number of important astronomical discoveries, including the four moons of Jupiter, sunspots, and the myriad of stars that compose the Milky Way <br />Proposing that falling bodies would all fall at the same rate, regardless of mass, if there were no air resistance.<br />
  5. 5. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />Milestones:<br />1589: Taught mathematics at the University of Pisa <br />1592: Taught mathematics at the University of Padua <br />1609: Reinvented the telescope based on hearsay of such a device's existence in Holland.<br />
  6. 6. University of Padua<br />
  7. 7. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />1610: Studied the heavens with his telescope, and discovered mountains on the Moon, thousands of stars too faint to be seen unaided, the phases of Venus, and other important astronomical findings <br />1610: Published several of his astronomical findings in Sidereus Nuncius (The Starry Messenger) <br />1610: Accepted a position as mathematician and philosopher to the Grand Duke of Tuscany.<br />
  8. 8. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />1632: Published a defense of the Copernican heliocentric (sun-centered) universe <br />1633: The Roman Catholic Church forced Galileo to recant his support of the Copernican system, and placed him under lifelong house arrest.<br />
  9. 9. Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition<br />
  10. 10. Quick Facts About Galileo Galilei<br />Did You Know:<br />Galileo died in 1642, while under house arrest imposed upon him by the Roman Catholic Church. In 1992, the Church acknowledged that its condemnation of Galileo was a mistake. <br />Galileo helped develop the scientific method by using experimentation to test physical theories. <br />Galileo constructed the first thermometer.<br />
  11. 11. Galileo’s Experiments in Mechanics<br />Galileo’s greatest contribution were in the field of mechanics.<br />Mechanics is the study of motion and the actions of forces on bodies.<br />He conceptualized that falling bodies of different mass would hit the ground at the same time but on Earth the event described could be affected by air resistance.<br />
  12. 12. The Leaning Bell-tower of the Cathedral of Pisa<br />
  13. 13. Galileo’s Experiments in Mechanics<br />Galileo discovered laws that invariably described the behavior of physical objects.<br />The most far reaching is the law of inertia.<br />Inertia of a body is that property that of the body that resists any change of motion.<br />If a body is at rest, it tends to remain at rest.<br />Some outside influence is required to start it in motion. <br />
  14. 14. Galileo’s Experiments in Mechanics<br />Rest was regarded as the natural state of matter.<br />But Galileo showed that motion is as natural as rest.<br />He reasoned that if an object is slid across a material that is frictionless it would continue to slid on and on.<br />Friction is the resistance encountered by an object moving relative to another object with which it is in contact.<br />
  15. 15. Galileo’s Experiments in Mechanics<br />He also thought that force is required to<br />A. slow down<br />B. stop<br />C. speed up<br />D. or change the direction of a moving object.<br />Galileo also studied the way bodies accelerate.<br />There is acceleration when bodies change their speed as they fall freely or roll down inclined planes.<br />
  16. 16. Galileo’s Experiments in Mechanics<br />He found that bodies accelerate uniformly.<br />That is, in equal intervals of time they gain equal increments in speed.<br />Galileo formulated these in precise mathematical terms.<br />
  17. 17. Galileo and the Heliocentric Cosmology<br />In the 1590’s, Galileo accepted the Copernican hypothesis of the solar system.<br />Earth according to anti-Copernicans should be at rest.<br />But using the idea of inertia, we could imagine an Earth moving perpetually once forced is applied on it.<br />
  18. 18. Galileo and the Heliocentric Cosmology<br />He countered the idea of anti-Copernicansthat if Earth were to move it will leave behind objects that are on Earth.<br />Objects on Earth would not be swept off and left behind because they share the Earth’s forward motion.<br />
  19. 19. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations<br />In 1609 Galileo made a three power magnification telescope. <br />He got the idea probably from Dutch spectacle maker Hans Lippershey.<br />The best magnification he had was 30.<br />He first tested the accuracy of the image formed in the telescope before using it for astronomical work in 1609.<br />
  20. 20. Telescopes Used by Galileo<br />
  21. 21. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations <br />In 1610 published the book “The Sidereal Messenger” (Sidereus Nuncius).<br />In this book he presented his discoveries.<br />E.g.<br />Nebulous blurs resolve into many stars like Praesepe cluster in Cancer.<br />Milky Way was made up of multitudes of individual stars.<br />
  22. 22. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations<br />He observed that Jupiter had four satellites with revolving periods of about 2 to 17 days.<br />He proved then that Earth is not the only center of motion in the universe.<br />He found that Venus goes through phases just like the moon.<br />This disproves the Ptolemaic system wherein Venus will only have a 45 degree elongation and will only show a crescent phase according to geocentric model.<br />
  23. 23. Phases of Venus according to Heliocentric Theory<br />
  24. 24. The four Galilean Satellites of Jupiter<br />
  25. 25. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations<br />Discovered that the surface of the moon is uneven, rough, full of cavities and prominences that contradicts the long held belief that heavenly bodies are perfect, smooth and incorruptible.<br />Hypothesized that dark areas on the moon are marias or seas.<br />
  26. 26. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations<br />He observed blemishes on the Sun that we know now as sun spots.<br />Sun spots are large, comparatively cool areas on the Sun that appear dark because of their contrast with the brighter and hotter solar surface.<br />Galileo observed that spots would move day by day and after some time disappear, and about two weeks same spots would reappear. <br />
  27. 27. Galileo’s Drawings of Sun spots<br />
  28. 28. Galileo’s Astronomical Observations<br />According to Galileo sunspots could be located either on the surface of the Sun or very close to it.<br />And that these sun spots are carried around by its rotation.<br />He also estimated that Sun’s rotation is a little under a month.<br />
  29. 29. Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems<br />Galileo published a book entitled Dialogue on the Two Great World Systems (Dialogo dei Due Massimi Sistemi).<br />The book is a magnificent and unanswerable argument for Copernican astronomy.<br />The characters in the book are: <br />A. Salviati through whom Galileo expresses his ideas.<br />B. Sagredo who is quick to see the truth of Salviati’s arguments.<br />C. and Simplicio who is an Aristotelian philosopher who brings up objections to the Copernican theory. <br />
  30. 30. Zybrinskie T. Bangcado<br />Prepared by:<br />

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