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Integrating
Customary
and Statutory
Systems
The struggle to
develop
a Legal and Policy
Framework for NTFPs
in Cameroon

13...
The struggle in Cameroon….
• Diverse & many forests, people & products
>700 NTFPs
≈280 tribes & linguistic groups
• Subsis...
Why: plural tenure
• Historical layers
• Current consequences

1884

THINKING beyond the canopy
Mixed bundle resource rights
Droit d’usage
Customary user rights
Free usufruct rights
Paid access for 13
Special Forestry
...
Laws
• 1974 Land Law ‘squatters’
– Public state land
– Private land
– National domain land
• ‘Vacant’ & ‘occupied/worked’
...
Plural governance arrangements

Ingram EFTRN 2News 53 012

THINKING beyond the canopy
Taxation
• Formal
– Quotas & permits
– Market traders
– Regeneration taxes

• ‘’Informal’’ (corruption)
– Permits
– Transp...
• Vibrant NTFP sector exists – larger than
timber sector
• Steps taken to develop regulatory and policy
framework
• But cu...
Recommendations
• The range of NTFP values acknowledged. Subsistence use
recognized & with small-scale, local trade exempt...
http://www.unutki.org/news.php?news_id=84&doc_id=101

Wild Product Governance Chapter 2

Thank you !

Contacts:
Verina..in...
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Integrating customary and legal systems for forest product governance, Cameroon

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Ingram, Laird et al. integrating systems cameroon may 2012

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Integrating customary and legal systems for forest product governance, Cameroon

  1. 1. Integrating Customary and Statutory Systems The struggle to develop a Legal and Policy Framework for NTFPs in Cameroon 13th Congress of the International Society of Ethnobiology, Montpellier Session 42 Effective and equitable law and policy for NTFPs 24 May 2012 Verina Ingram, Sarah Laird, Abdon Awono, Ousseynou Ndoye, Terry Sunderland, Estherine Lisinge and Robert Nkuinkeu THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. The struggle in Cameroon…. • Diverse & many forests, people & products >700 NTFPs ≈280 tribes & linguistic groups • Subsistence and traded • There is policy and not…. • Products and species are regulated and not… • Policy and regulatory focus on timber THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Why: plural tenure • Historical layers • Current consequences 1884 THINKING beyond the canopy
  4. 4. Mixed bundle resource rights Droit d’usage Customary user rights Free usufruct rights Paid access for 13 Special Forestry products • No access protected areas • • • • THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Laws • 1974 Land Law ‘squatters’ – Public state land – Private land – National domain land • ‘Vacant’ & ‘occupied/worked’ • 1994 Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries Law – Special Forestry Products – Quotas & permits – Community & council forests • Agricultural & Livestock regulations THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Plural governance arrangements Ingram EFTRN 2News 53 012 THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Taxation • Formal – Quotas & permits – Market traders – Regeneration taxes • ‘’Informal’’ (corruption) – Permits – Transport • • Ineffective, low revenues, untransparent, favours powerful, urban & elites Increases price for consumers, decreases trader’s buying price , encourages informality, unpredictable THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. • Vibrant NTFP sector exists – larger than timber sector • Steps taken to develop regulatory and policy framework • But current situation characterised by uncomplementary pluralism, inconsistent & inappropriate laws, unenforcement and corruption • Customary law still dominates for majority of NTFPs • Insufficient protection for products with high commercial demand and traded in large volumes • Result in regulatory framework that undermines sector , livelihoods and sustainability • Beneficiaries are powerful few, urban and elite at cost of many, local and small scale forest and rural actors Conclusions THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Recommendations • The range of NTFP values acknowledged. Subsistence use recognized & with small-scale, local trade exempt from taxation & intervention • Land tenure and resource rights rationalized. • Customary law respected & complementary to statutory law. • Regulatory framework streamlined and clarified. NTFP laws better elaborated and defined • Consultations inform legal & policy framework • Rational, legitimate and just taxation • Regulatory framework for NTFPs streamlined and made clear. • Government institutional capacity improved • Outreach by government and others THINKING beyond the canopy
  10. 10. http://www.unutki.org/news.php?news_id=84&doc_id=101 Wild Product Governance Chapter 2 Thank you ! Contacts: Verina..ingram@wur.nl, sarahlaird@aol.com a.abdon@cgair.org ousseynou.Ndoye@fao.org t.sunderland@cgiar.org estherine.Lisinge-Fotabong@unep.org nkuinkeu@yahoo.com THINKING beyond the canopy

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